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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2017.tde-25082017-090926
Document
Author
Full name
Camila Cristiane Pansa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Melo, Itamar Soares de (President)
Lucon, Cleusa Maria Mantovanello
Rodrigues, Andre
Rossmann, Maike
Title in Portuguese
Trichoderma spp. de solos da Floresta Amazônica como fonte de enzimas celulolíticas
Keywords in Portuguese
Trichoderma
Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar
Celulose
Enzima
Floresta Amazônica
Abstract in Portuguese
A Floresta Amazônica, o maior bioma brasileiro, é caracterizado pela ampla diversidade e heterogeneidade de seus ecossistemas. Os solos amazônicos, em geral, abrigam elevada diversidade microbiana que desempenha papeis importantes na ciclagem de nutrientes, mediante a decomposição da matéria orgânica. Dentre os micro-organismos, os fungos se destacam como os principais agentes envolvidos na biodegradação. Esses micro-organismos produzem um coquetel de enzimas do complexo celulolítico que são de grande importância biotecnológica. Desse modo, diante da importância econômica dos fungos, o presente trabalho propôs, acessar fungo do gênero Trichoderma, obtidos de solos da Floresta Amazônica, na busca por linhagens com alto potencial celulolítico. Assim, a partir de amostras de solos coletados em doze pontos da floresta foram obtidos 151 isolados de Trichoderma spp. O sequenciamento do gene que codifica para o de elongação da transcrição alfa-1, evidenciou a prevalência de sete espécies de Trichoderma. Do total de isolados, as mais abundantes foram: Trichoderma spirale (37%), Trichoderma strigosum (22%), Trichoderma harzianum (18%) e Trichoderma asperellum (17%). As linhagens foram submetidas a triagem para atividade celulolítica. Duas linhagens, T. harzianum AMS 23.14 e T. harzianum AMS 29.14 apresentaram atividade enzimática superior ao padrão, T. reesei RUT C-30 e foram submetidas a avaliação da atividade enzimática em diferentes condições de cultivos (bagaço de cana-deaçúcar tratado e não tratado, em dois pHs: 3 e 5). Foi observado atividade superior das linhagens amazônicas para as três enzimas estudadas (endoglucanase, exoglucanase e β-glicosidase), quando comparadas à linhagem padrão utilizada. A atividade enzimática foi positivamente influenciada pelo pH ácido, assim como pelo substrato não tratado. A partir destes resultados é notório que as linhagens isoladas desse bioma possuem grande potencial de atividade celulolítica, e que estudos mais aprofundados podem proporcionar o futuro emprego desses fungos em diversas áreas industriais.
Title in English
Trichoderma spp. from Amazon Forest soils as source of cellulolytic enzymes
Keywords in English
Trichoderma
Amazon rain forest
Biodiversity
Cellulase
Abstract in English
The Amazon Rain Forest, the largest Brazilian biome, is characterized by the wide diversity and heterogeneity of its ecosystems. Amazonian soils, in general, harbor high microbial diversity that plays important roles in the cycling of nutrients, through the decomposition of organic matter. Among the microorganisms, fungi stand out as biodegradation agents. These microorganisms produce cellulolytic enzymes that are of great economic and biotechnological importance. The present work proposed to access the fungal population of the genus Trichoderma, isolated from Amazonian Forest soils, in the search for lineages with high potential of cellulolytic activity. Twelve soil samples were collected, resulting in the isolation of 151 strains of Trichoderma spp. Gene sequencing of the alpha-1 transcription elongation factor region with the EF1 and TEFR primers evidenced the prevalence of seven Trichoderma species. Of the total isolates, Trichoderma spirale (37%), Trichoderma strigosum (22%), Trichoderma harzianum (18%) and Trichoderma asperellum (17%) were the most abundant. The strains were screened for qualitative cellulolytic activity in solid medium and quantitative in liquid medium. Two strains, T. harzianum AMS 23.14 and T. harzianum AMS 29.14 showed enzymatic activity superior to T. reesei RUT C-30, and were sent to the evaluation of the enzymatic activity in different conditions (sugarcane bagasse treated and untreated, in two pHs: 3 and 5). Superior activity of the Amazonian strains was observed for the three enzymes studied (endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase) when compared to the T. reesei RUT C-30 standard. The enzymatic activity was positively influenced by pH 3, as well as by the untreated substrate. From these results, it is well known that isolated strains of the Amazonian environment have a great potential for cellulolytic activity, and that further studies may provide the future employment of these strains in several areas of industry.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-08-31
 
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