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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2011.tde-17032011-095829
Document
Author
Full name
Elisa Rabelo Matos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues (President)
Andreote, Fernando Dini
Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio de
Title in Portuguese
Diversidade e biogeografia de fungos no solo sob a projeção da copa de espécies arbóreas da Mata Atlântica
Keywords in Portuguese
Biodiversidade
Biogeografia
Fungos
Mata Atlântica
Matéria orgânica do solo
Microbiologia do solo.
Abstract in Portuguese
A estrutura da comunidade e a diversidade fúngica do solo sob a copa de quatro espécies arbóreas (Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, Mollinedia schottiana e Tabebuia serratifolia), no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho (PECB), foram examinadas em duas estações climáticas distintas, utilizando-se PCR-DGGE e sequenciamento de bibliotecas de clones da região ITS do rDNA. As relações entre as estruturas das comunidades fúngicas, a concentração de carbono na biomassa microbiana (CBM), os atributos químicos do solo e as diferentes frações da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS), foram avaliadas utilizando-se análise de redundância. O valores de pH, MO, C, Ca, V% e Al apresentaram diferenças significativas no solo sob a copa das diferentes espécies de árvores amostradas. Os maiores valores de pH, MO, C, Ca e V% foram observados sob a copa de O. dispersa, enquanto que as maiores concentrações de Al foram observadas no solo sob a copa de O. teleiandra. A concentração de ácidos húmicos (AH) foi significativamente maior no solo sob a copa de O. dispersa. A concentração de CBM foi maior na época de baixa pluviosidade, independente da espécie vegetal. As estruturas das comunidades fúngicas dos solos sob a copa das quatro diferentes espécies de árvores analisadas mostrou comunidades distintas no solo sob a copa de cada espécie de árvore avaliada. As estruturas das comunidades fúngicas mostraram também variação em relação à pluviosidade. A estimativa de riqueza de UTOs, com base no sequenciamento de clones da região ITS do rDNA, foi significativamente diferente entre as amostras analisadas. Com base no índice de Shannon, a diversidade fúngica no solo sob a copa de Ocotea dispersa foi maior do que no solo sob a copa das demais espécies de árvores. A afiliação filogenética das UTOs mostrou a ocorrência dos filos Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota e Glomeromycota, em ordem de abundância, além de fungos não-cultivados que compreenderam 25% das sequências analisadas. UTOs relacionadas ao filo Basidiomycota foram as mais abundantes no solo sob a copa das quatro espécies arbóreas analisadas (67% em MS, 59% em OT, 66% em TS e 57% em OD). Nesse filo, as UTOs representando Cryptococcus podzolicus e Trichosporon sporotrichoides foram as mais abundantes. De Zygomycota, UTOs afiliadas ao gênero Mortierella foram mais abundantes. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que a diversidade e a estrutura de comunidades de fungos no solo depende da espécie vegetal crescendo no mesmo, e podem estar associadas aos teores de matéria orgânica, nitrogênio e saturação por bases.
Title in English
Diversity and biogeography of fungi in soil under the canopy of tree species in the Atlantic Forest
Keywords in English
Atlantic Forest
Biodiversity
Biogeography
Fungi
Soil microbiology.
Soil organic matter
Abstract in English
The community structure and diversity of fungi in soil under the canopy of four tree species (Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, Tabebuia serratifolia, and Mollinedia schottiana), in the Carlos Botelho State Park (PECB) were examined in two different seasons, using PCR-DGGE and rDNA ITS region clone library sequencing. The relationships between fungal community structures, concentration of microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil chemical properties, and different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were evaluated using redundance analysis. The pH, OM, C, Ca, Al, and V% showed significant differences in soil under the canopy of different species of trees. The highest values of pH, OM, C, Ca, and V% were observed under the O. dispersa canopy, while the highest concentrations of Al were observed in the soil under the O. teleiandra canopy. The concentration of humic acid (HA) was significantly higher in soil under the canopy of O. dispersa. The concentration of MBC was higher in the low rain precipitation season, regardless of plant species. The fungal community structures observed in soil under the canopies of the studied tree species were distinct in each soil microenvironment. The fungal community structures also showed variation with the variation in rain precipitation. The estimated OTU richness based on the sequencing of clones of the rDNA ITS region was significantly different between samples. Based on the Shannon diversity index, the fungal diversity in soil under the canopy of Ocotea dispersa was higher than in soil under the canopy of other tree species. The phylogenetic affiliation of OTUs showed the occurrence of phyla Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota, in order of abundance, and non-cultivated fungi that comprised 25% of the analyzed sequences. OTUs related to the phylum Basidiomycota were more abundant in soil under the canopies of all studied tree species (67% in MS, 59% in OT, 66% in TS and 57% in OD). In this phylum, OTUs affiliated to Cryptococcus podzolicus and Trichosporon sporotrichoides were the most abundant. From Zygomycota, OTUs affiliated to the genus Mortierella were more abundant. It can be concluded that the fungal diversity and community structure in the soil depends on the plant species growing in it, and may be associated with the concentration of organic matter, nitrogen, and base saturation.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-03-17
 
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