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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2008.tde-13102008-153055
Document
Author
Full name
Marizete de Fátima Pimentel Godoy
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Pascholati, Sergio Florentino (President)
Basso, Luiz Carlos
Fiore, Marli de Fatima
Goes, Antonio de
Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei
Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de
Title in Portuguese
Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos e frações do cultivo in vitro de Lentinula edodes contra Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, Guignardia citricarpa, Colletotrichum sublineolum e Tobacco mo
Keywords in Portuguese
Agentes antimicrobianos
Cogumelos comestíveis
Fitopatógenos
Mancha bacteriana
Mancha preta
Vírus de plantas.
Abstract in Portuguese
Os cogumelos comestíveis contêm substâncias funcionais de interesse, tais como proteínas e glucanas, as quais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano contra bactérias, fungos e até mesmo propriedades antivirais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar extratos do cultivo in vitro do micélio de Lentinula edodes com propriedades contra fitopatógenos. Duas linhagens de L. edodes foram cultivadas em pequena escala em três diferentes meios de cultivo e após 0, 20, 40 e 60 dias, o micélio e o filtrado foram extraídos com solventes de diferentes polaridades. Os extratos foram testados contra Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae e Guignardia citricarpa, para verificar as melhores condições de cultivo para a produção de compostos bioativos. Com isso, foram selecionados os meios GPL (glicose, peptona e extrato de levedura) e SML (sacarose, extrato de malte e extrato de levedura) para o cultivo em grande escala de L. edodes. Após 60 dias, o micélio foi extraído com etanol, etanol 70% e água. O filtrado foi extraído com acetato de etila através de partição líquido-líquido. Os extratos foram testados contra G. citricarpa, Colletotrichum sublineolum e o Vírus do mosaico do fumo (TMV). Os extratos etanol e etanol 70% do meio SML foram ativos in vitro contra os fungos, constatando-se através de RMNH1, a presença, nestes extratos, de possíveis açúcares ausentes no meio de cultivo. As suspensões de TMV foram inoculadas mecanicamente em Nicotiana tabacum var. TNN (hospedeira de lesão local) cultivadas em casa de vegetação, através do método da meia-folha. Somente o extrato aquoso do micélio da linhagem LE 96/17 inibiu a expressão de sintomas de lesão local pelo TMV e a taxa de inibição foi de 82% na concentração de 0,5 mg/mL. Este extrato ativo foi purificado por coluna de Sephadex, rendendo 16 frações, sendo que as frações ativas 6/7 e 8/9 reduziram a infectividade do TMV em 95,5 % e 79%, respectivamente. Os espectros de RMNH1 sugeriram que estas frações são constituídas possivelmente por peptídeos e composto aromático. Os resultados de espectrometria de massas revelaram a provável presença de compostos já descritos na literatura e que apresentam conhecida atividade antimicrobiana. Experimentos comprovaram que o extrato bruto ativo não apresentou efeito viricida e, este mesmo extrato e a subfração resultante, não induziram resistência nas plantas de fumo.
Title in English
Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from culture in vitro of Lentinula edodes against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, Guignardia citricarpa, Colletotrichum sublineolum and Tobacco mosaic virus
Keywords in English
Antimicrobial activity
Lentinula edodes
Phytopathogens
Shiitake.
Abstract in English
Edible mushrooms contain functional compounds, such as proteins and glucans, which exhibit antimicrobial potential against bacteria, fungi and antiviral activity. The aim of this work was to identify extracts from submerged mycelium of Lentinula edodes with antimicrobial properties against phytopathogens. Two strains of L. edodes were grown in small scale in three different culture media and after 0, 20, 40 and 60 days, the mycelium and the filtrate were extracted with solvents of different polarities. Extracts were bioassayed against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae and Guignardia citricarpa to verify the best condition for growth to produce bioactive compounds. After this, L. edodes was grown in large scale in the selected media, GPL (glucose, peptone and yeast extract) and SML (sucrose, malt extract and yeast extract). After 60 days, the mycelium was extracted with ethanol, ethanol 70% and water. The filtrate was extracted through liquid-liquid partition with ethyl acetate. The extracts were bioassayed against G. citricarpa, Colletotrichum sublineolum and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). The ethanol and ethanol 70% extracts from medium SML were active in vitro against the fungi and it was verified through H1NMR, the possible presence of sugars in these extracts, which were absent in the culture medium. The TMV suspensions were mechanically inoculated in Nicotiana tabacum TNN (local lesion host) grown in greenhouse, through the half-leaf method. Only the mycelium aqueous extract of strain LE 96/17 inhibited the expression of symptoms of local lesions by TMV and the inhibition ratio was around 82% at 0.5 mg/mL. This active extract was purified by Sephadex column, yielding 16 fractions. Active fractions 6/7 and 8/9 reduced infectivity by 95.5 and 79%, respectively. The H1NMR spectra suggested that fractions 6/7 and 8/9 possibly have peptides and aromatic compound. The results of mass spectrometry revealed the possible presence of compounds already described in the literature and exhibiting antimicrobial activity. The experiments showed that the active crude extract did not exhibit viricidal effect and that such extract and its resulting subfraction inhibited the infectivity of TMV and did not induce resistance in tobacco plants.
 
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Marizete_Godoy.pdf (7.21 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2008-10-16
 
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