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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2011.tde-24052011-091301
Document
Author
Full name
Ligia Hansen Arruda
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Silva Filho, Marcio de Castro (President)
Colepicolo Neto, Pio
Moura, Daniel Scherer de
Neshich, Goran
Vitorello, Claudia Barros Monteiro
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização estrutural da interação de serino proteinases de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e inibidores de proteinases de plantas
Keywords in Portuguese
Bioinformática
Genética molecular vegetal
Inibidores de enzimas
Interação planta-inseto
Lagartas
Modelagem molecular
Proteinases.
Abstract in Portuguese
As plantas desenvolveram diferentes mecanismos para reduzir o ataque de insetos, incluindo compostos protéicos de defesa, como os inibidores de proteinases (IPs). Os insetos, ao longo da evolução, desenvolveram estratégias para superar as barreiras defensivas das plantas, permitindo a sua alimentação e desenvolvimento, como a super expressão de genes de enzimas digestivas sensíveis e insensíveis aos IPs de plantas. Uma das abordagens desse trabalho foi identificar novas serinoproteinases no intestino de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Duas novas quimotripsinas e trê novas tripsinas foram identificadas e juntamente com mais 10 genes já conhecidos que codificam estas enzimas foram submetidos à análise de expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real. Entre essas duas famílias de serinoproteinases (SPs) os genes que codificam as quimotripsinas apresentam uma regulação positiva mais ampla do que aqueles que codificam as tripsinas. Estudos de modelagem molecular das quimotripsinas também foram realizados. Foram construídos modelos tridimensionais à partir de modelagem por homologia além de análises de dinâmica molecular e docagem com oito diferentes IPs do tipo Bowman- Birk. Os resultados mostram quais quimotripsinas apresentam as maiores afinidades aos inibidores testados de maneira geral e individual, inferidos à partir da estimativa de energia livre do sistema. Também foi encontrada uma serina extra próxima ao sítio catalítico de três quimotrispsinas modeladas que pode interferir na afinidade dessas enzimas já que este aminoácido apresenta perda de área acessível ao solvente quando complexada ao IP de soja testado. Os resultados de expressão gênica e grau de sensibilidade foram comparados e não se observou qualquer relação entre esses parâmentros. Isso sugere que as lagartas da espécie S. frugiperda combinam diferentes estratégias adaptativas como o aumento de expressão de todas as suas quimotripsinas independentemente do grau de sensibilidade das enzimas.
Title in English
Structural characterisation of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) serine proteinase interactions with plant proteinase inhibitors.
Keywords in English
Bioinfomatics
Caterpillars
Enzymes inhibitors
Molecular modelling
Plant molecular genetics
Plant-insect interaction
Proteinases.
Abstract in English
Plants have developed different mechanisms to reduce insect attack, including defence proteins such as proteinase inhibitors (PIs). In turn, insects have evolved strategies to overcome these plant defence mechanisms, such as the hyperexpression of PI-sensitive and insensitive digestive enzymes, allowing the insect to thrive. One of the aims of this work was to identify new serine proteinases (SPs) in the gut of the fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda. Two new chymotrypsins and three new trypsins were identified, and together with 10 previously identified genes, the genes that encode these enzymes were subjected to real-time PCR and gene expression analysis. Between these two families of serine-proteinases the genes that encode chymotrypsins show a greater positive regulation then those encoding the trypsins. Molecular modelling studies of the chymotrypsins were carried out, and 3D models were generated using homology modelling, which were then further refined by dynamic molecular and docking analyses with 8 different Bowman-Birk type PIs. The results demonstrate which chymotrypsins possess the highest affinities to the tested inhibitors in a general and individual manner, inferred from the estimated free energies. A serine residue in very close proximity to the catalytic site was present in three of chymotrypsins investigated, which may be affecting the enzymes affinity since the residue has a reduced accessible area to the solvent when complexed to the soya PI tested. The genetic expression patterns and the degree of PI-sensitivity were also compared and no relation between the parameters was found. This suggests that the larvae of the species S. frugiperda combine different adaptive strategies like the increase in expression of its entire chymotrypsin arsenal regardless of the degree of PI-sensitivity of the enzymes.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-05-31
 
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