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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2020.tde-06052020-115839
Document
Author
Full name
Lucas Caixeta Vieira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Favarin, José Laercio (President)
Schwerz, Felipe
Otto, Rafael
Umburanas, Renan Caldas
Title in Portuguese
Nível crítico de cálcio para o desenvolvimento de mudas do café arábica
Keywords in Portuguese
Consumo de luxo
Eficiência de recuperação de cálcio
Produção relativa
Abstract in Portuguese
O cálcio é um macronutriente secundário absorvido pelas plantas na forma de cátion (Ca2+). Nível crítico (NC) representa o teor trocável do nutriente no solo responsável por 90% de produção relativa. Com isto, objetivou-se na presente pesquisa determinar o NC de Ca, por meio do extrator resina aniônica, para o desenvolvimento de mudas de café arábica, a fim de estabelecer três classes de teores com base na produção relativa (PR) de massa seca da muda de café arábica, a saber: teor baixo (< 90% de PR), teor médio (90 a 100% de PR) e teor alto (> 100% de PR). Esta pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação, na Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (USP/ESALQ), no município de Piracicaba/SP, Brasil, com início dia 02/08/2018. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados (DBC), com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada unidade experimental foi composta por uma planta em vaso de 8 dm-3 em substrato areia lavada. Os teores de Ca trocáveis (3, 5, 7, 9, 11 e 22 mmolc dm-3) representam os tratamentos, definidos a partir do controle, o qual tinha o menor teor de Ca (1 mmolc dm-3), após sucessivas lavagens da areia com água destilada. Os tratamentos foram obtidos com a aplicação de Cloreto de Cálcio, a fim de não alterar o pH e fornecer apenas Ca. O excedente da solução nutritiva, após a aplicação das mesmas e após as irrigações, era coletado em vidro preso aos vasos, a fim de retornar o material lixiviado. Foram utilizadas mudas do cultivar Obatã Amarelo IAC 4739 transplantadas com três pares de folhas expandidas. A produção relativa de biomassa superior a 90% ocorreu com o teor de 5 mmolc dm-3 de Ca trocável no substrato. A eficiência de recuperação de Ca associada ao NC, evidenciou consumo de luxo pelo cafeeiro arábica. Determinou-se três classes de teores de Ca trocável para fim de interpretação: teor baixo (< 5,0 mmolc dm-3), teor médio (5,0 a 17,5 mmolc dm-3) e teor alto (> 17,5 mmolc dm-3). Os produtores de café arábica devem ficar atentos com os teores de Ca no solo, visto que mesmo com níveis acima de 5,0 mmolc dm-3 de Ca, já se é possível atingir o teor médio. Porém, doses elevadas podem apresentar correlações negativas fracas, regulares e fortes com macro e micronutrientes, bem como elevação desnecessária no custo de produção.
Title in English
Critical calcium level for the development of arabica coffee seedlings
Keywords in English
Calcium recovery efficiency
Luxury consumption
Relative production
Abstract in English
Calcium is a secondary macronutrient absorbed by plants in the form of a cation (Ca2+). Critical level (NC) represents the exchangeable content of the nutrient in the soil responsible for 90% of relative production. With this, the objective of this research was to determine the NC of Ca, by means of the anionic resin extractor, for the development of Arabica coffee seedlings, in order to establish three classes of contents based on the relative production (PR) of dry mass of Arabica coffee seedling, namely: low content (< 90% of PR), medium content (90 to 100% of PR) and high content (> 100% of PR). This research was carried out in a greenhouse, at the School of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" (USP / ESALQ), in the municipality of Piracicaba / SP, Brazil, starting on 02/08/2018. The experiment was installed in a randomized block design (DBC), with seven treatments and four replications. Each experimental unit was composed of a plant in an 8 dm-3 pot on a washed sand substrate. The exchangeable Ca contents (3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 22 mmolc dm-3) represent the treatments, defined from the control, which had the lowest Ca content (1 mmolc dm-3), after successive washes of sand with distilled water. The treatments were obtained with the application of Calcium Chloride, in order not to alter the pH and provide only Ca. The excess of the nutrient solution, after application and after irrigation, was collected in glass attached to the pots, in order to return the leachate material. Seedlings of the cultivar Obatã Amarelo IAC 4739 transplanted with three pairs of expanded leaves were used. The relative biomass production above 90% occurred with the content of 5 mmolc dm-3 of exchangeable Ca in the substrate. The efficiency of Ca recovery associated with NC, showed luxury consumption by Arabica coffee. Three classes of exchangeable Ca content were determined for interpretation: low content (< 5.0 mmolc dm-3), medium content (5.0 to 17.5 mmolc dm-3) and high content (> 17,5 mmolc dm-3). Arabica coffee producers should pay attention to the Ca content in the soil, since even with levels above 5.0 mmolc dm-3 of Ca, it is already possible to reach the average content. However, high doses can present weak, regular and strong negative correlations with macro and micronutrients, as well as unnecessary increase in production cost.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-05-08
 
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