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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2016.tde-10062016-095344
Document
Author
Full name
Mariane Sayuri Ishizuka
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei (President)
Machado, José da Cruz
Moraes, Maria Heloisa Duarte de
Title in Portuguese
Compatibilidade entre tratamentos químico e biológico de sementes de feijão para controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli
Keywords in Portuguese
Phaseolus vulgaris
Trichoderma
Antagonismo in vitro
Fungicidas
Qualidade fisiológica
Abstract in Portuguese
Atualmente, a produtividade do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pode ser reduzida devido à ocorrência de doenças em todo o território nacional, destacando-se a murcha de fusário, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop). No campo, o patógeno é disseminado a longas distâncias através das sementes infectadas e/ou contaminadas e a sua sobrevivência ocorre, principalmente, no solo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial de Fop por Trichoderma spp.; classificar a sensibilidade in vitro de Fop e Trichoderma spp., separadamente, a fungicidas e verificar a compatibilidade entre fungicidas químicos e biológicos para controle de Fop, presente nas sementes e no solo. Para avaliar a inibição do crescimento micelial de Fop, foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno, os quais foram confrontados, in vitro, com três isolados de Trichoderma spp. em testes de cultura pareada e produção de metabólitos voláteis a 20-22°C. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições para cada isolado de Trichoderma. Para a classificação da sensibilidade in vitro de Fop e Trichoderma a fungicidas, foram avaliados os mesmos isolados anteriormente utilizados. Foram comparados dez fungicidas, em doses entre 0 a 100 mg L-1 que foram ajustadas de acordo com a CI50 de cada fungicida. Com base na percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial, foram estimados os valores da concentração inibitória de 50% (CI50) e 100% (CI100) e selecionaram-se os fungicidas compatíveis com Trichoderma spp. A compatibilidade entre tratamentos químico e biológico foi avaliada através da inoculação artificial de sementes de feijão com um isolado de Fop (IAC 11.299-1) e infestação do mesmo no solo. As sementes foram tratadas com os fungicidas fludioxonil, flutriafol e tiofanato metílico, e com os três produtos biológicos, separadamente e em misturas. Avaliou-se o efeito dos tratamentos por meio dos testes de sanidade, germinação, comprimento de plântulas, massa da matéria seca em laboratório e índice de velocidade de emergência e porcentagem de emergência em estufa não climatizada. O efeito protetor dos tratamentos foi verificado através do teste de transmissão do patógeno solo-planta. Todos os isolados de Trichoderma apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra Fop. No teste de cultura pareada foi observada uma redução de 15 a 20% no crescimento micelial do patógeno. No teste de produção de metabólitos voláteis, o isolado T12-1086G05 foi responsável pela maior inibição do crescimento micelial de Fop (10 a 48%). Os testes de sensibilidade in vitro mostraram que tiofanato metílico, flutriafol e fludioxonil foram compatíveis com Trichoderma (CI50 > 2 mg L-1). Com exceção do flutriafol e do GF 422 isolados e em mistura, todos os tratamentos foram eficientes na erradicação de Fop nas sementes, sem afetar a sua qualidade fisiológica. No teste de transmissão, verificou-se que a incidência de Fop foi de 5 a 40% no hipocótilo e de 5 a 30% nas raízes de feijoeiro provenientes de sementes tratadas com os produtos.
Title in English
Compatibility between chemical and biological treatments in common bean seeds to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli
Keywords in English
In vitro antagonism
Phaseolus vulgaris
Trichoderma
Fungicides
Physiological quality
Abstract in English
Currently, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity can be reduced due to the occurrence of diseases in all over the country, especially Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop). In the field, the pathogen is spread to long distances through infected and/or contaminated seeds and its survival occurs, mainly, in the soil. The objectives of this work were: to evaluate the micelial growth inhibition of Fop promoted by Trichoderma spp.; to classificate in vitro sensitivity of Fop and Trichoderma spp., separately, to fungicides and to verify the compatibility between chemical and biological fungicides to control Fop, applied on the seeds and on the soil. To evaluate the micelial growth inhibition of Fop, it was used three Fop isolates, which were in vitro confronted with three isolates of Trichoderma spp., by paired culture and antibiosis assays at 20-22°C. The experiments were conducted entirely casualized design, with five replications for each Trichoderma isolate. For the in vitro sensitivity classification, it was evaluated the same isolates of Fop and Trichoderma previously used. It was compared ten fungicides and the concentrations of 0 to 100 mg L-1, which were adjusted according to the IC50 of each fungicide. Based on the percentage of micelial growth inhibition, it was estimated the values of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) and 100% ((IC100) and it was selected the compatible fungicides with Trichoderma spp. The compatibility between chemical and biological treatments were evaluated through artificial inoculation of common bean seeds with the Fop isolate IAC 11.299, following the infestation of the pathogen in the soil. Seeds were treated with fludioxonyl, flutriafol and tiofanate methyl, and with three biological products, separately and mixed. It was evaluated the treatment effects by the following assays: sanity, germination, seedling lenght, seedling dry matter in laboratory conditions and emergence speed rate and percentage of emergence in greenhouse conditions. The protective effect of the treatments was verified through the pathogen transmission experiment from soil to plant. All Trichoderma isolates showed in vitro antagonism against Fop. In the paired culture assay it was observed 15 to 20% reduction in the pathogen micelial growth. In the antibiosis assay, the isolate T12-1086G05 was responsible for the maximum micelial inhibition growth of Fop (10 to 48%). in vitro sensitivity experiments showed that thiofanate methyl, flutriafol and fludioxonyl were compatible with Trichoderma (IC50 > 2 mg L-1). Except the treatments with fluatrifol and GF 422 alone and in mixture, all the products were efficient in eradicating Fop in the seeds, without affect its physiological quality. In the transmission experiment, it was verified that the Fop incidence was 5 to 40% in the hypoticol and 5 to 30% in the common bean roots from seed treated with the products.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-06-28
 
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