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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Isabela Vescove Primiano
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 2019
Amorim, Lilian (President)
Bergamin Filho, Armando
Fischer, Ivan Herman
Godoy, Cláudia Vieira
Title in English
Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
Keywords in English
Glycine max
Phakopsora euvitis
Vitis spp.
Biotrophic interaction
Lesion expansion
Abstract in English
Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, a causal agent of Asian grapevine leaf rust, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a causal agent of Asian soybean rust, cause severe epidemics on their crop hosts. Both Phakopsora spp. seem to behave differently to other rusts, i.e. showing a high frequency of pustules on leaves concomitantly with host tissue necrosis and leading to premature defoliation. To shed light on the epidemiology of these rusts, this study aimed to: (i) compare the colonization progress of P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi on their hosts, by determination of fungal biomass via histological staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); (ii) compare the effects of Phakopsora spp. on host photosynthesis and the monocyclic components: incubation, latent, and infectious periods, number of uredinia, and disease severity over time; and (iii) estimate the relative defoliation rate caused by Asian grapevine and soybean rusts and its relationship to a range of disease severity. All pathosystems showed lesion expansion. Mycelial colonization did not extend beyond the lesion border. No increase in the number of lesions was observed over time, but formation of new uredinia of P. pachyrhizi and P. meliosmae-myrianthae within an existing lesion, without the need for a new infection site, increased by 9- to 19-fold, respectively. Incubation and latent periods were coincident for 8 days in Asian grapevine leaf rust and 13 days in Asian soybean rust. Minimum infectious periods were 21 days for P. meliosmae-myrianthae and 13 days for P. pachyrhizi, and both pathogens presented several sporulation peaks. Both Phakopsora rusts showed an increase in disease severity during monocycle, with similar progress rates that were estimated with the monomolecular model as 0.06 and 0.05 day-1 for grapevine and soybean rusts, respectively. P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi infection reduced relative photosynthetic rates by 22% and 5%, respectively, before the onset of symptoms. Defoliation rates of grapevine and soybean rusts were positively correlated with mean disease severity, according to a logarithmic model. On symptomless grapevine and soybean leaves, defoliation rates were 0.05 and 0.06 day-1, respectively. On diseased grapevine leaves, defoliation rate was 0.13 day-1 for leaves with disease severity between 12.1% and 25%. The rate of defoliation on soybean leaflets was 0.12 day-1 when disease severity was between 25% and 60%. Our findings showed that the epidemiological behaviour of P. meliosmae-myrianthae is similar to that of P. pachyrhizi. The continuous increase in the number of uredinia within lesions ensures an infectious period with several urediniospore production peaks, which is an efficient survival mechanism for these pathogens in the tropics. This might be directly related to the frequent epidemics caused by Phakopsora spp.
Title in Portuguese
Epidemiologia comparativa das ferrugens da videira e da soja
Keywords in Portuguese
Glycine max
Phakopsora euvitis
Vitis spp.
Expansão da lesão
Interação biotrófica
Abstract in Portuguese
Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, agente causal da ferrugem asiática da videira, e Phakopsora pachyrhizi, agente causal da ferrugem asiática da soja, ocasionam epidemias severas em seus hospedeiros. O comportamento dessas Phakopsora spp. parece não seguir o padrão de outras ferrugens, por exemplo apresentam elevada frequência de pústulas no limbo foliar concomitantemente à necrose foliar e desfolha precoce. Para elucidar a epidemiologia dessas ferrugens, este estudo teve como objetivos: (i) comparar o progresso da colonização de P. meliosmae-myrianthae e de P. pachyrhizi, em seus hospedeiros, pela determinação da biomassa fúngica via coloração histológica e via reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR); (ii) comparar os efeitos de Phakopsora spp. na fotossíntese dos seus hospedeiros e os componentes monocíclicos: períodos de incubação, latente e infeccioso, número de uredínios e severidade da doença ao longo do tempo; e (iii) estimar as taxas relativas de desfolha ocasionadas pelas ferrugens da videira e da soja em função da severidade das doenças. Todos os patossistemas apresentaram crescimento da lesão. A colonização micelial não se estendeu além da borda da lesão. Não foi observado aumento no número de lesões ao longo do tempo, mas o número de novos uredínios de P. pachyrhizi e de P. meliosmae- myrianthae nas lesões aumentou em 9 e 19 vezes, respectivamente. Os períodos de incubação e latente foram coincidentes: 8 dias para ferrugem da videira e 13 dias para a ferrugem da soja. Os períodos infecciosos foram de, no mínimo, 21 dias para P. meliosmae-myrianthae e de 13 dias para P. pachyrhizi e foram compostos de vários picos de esporulação para ambas as ferrugens. Durante o monociclo, as duas ferrugens apresentaram aumento da severidade, com similar taxa de progresso, determinada pelo modelo monomolecular, de 0,06 dia-1 e 0,05 dia-1, para as ferrugens da videira e da soja, respectivamente. Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae e P. pachyrhizi reduziram, em média, 22% e 5% da taxa fotossintética líquida nas folhas infectadas antes do aparecimento dos sintomas, respectivamente. As taxas de desfolha da ferrugem da videira e da soja foram positivamente correlacionadas com a severidade média das doenças, de acordo com um modelo logarítmico. Nas folhas de videira e de soja sem sintomas, as taxas de desfolha foram de 0,05 dia-1 e 0,06 dia-1, respectivamente. Nas folhas de videira com severidade da doença entre 12,1 a 25%, a taxa de desfolha foi de 0,13 dia-1 e nos folíolos de soja com severidade da doença entre 25 a 60%, foi de 0,12 dia-1. Nossos resultados mostram que o comportamento epidemiológico de P. meliosmae-myrianthae é semelhante ao de P. pachyrhizi. O contínuo aumento do número de uredínios na lesão favorece um período infeccioso com vários picos de produção de urediniósporos, sendo um eficiente mecanismo de sobrevivência desses patógenos nos trópicos. Essas características podem estar diretamente relacionadas às frequentes epidemias ocasionadas por Phakopsora spp.
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