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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.106.2019.tde-23092019-112528
Document
Author
Full name
Luciano José da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Barros, Virginia Parente de (President)
Losekann, Luciano Dias
Moreira, João Manoel Losada
Mummey, Juliana Ferrari Chade
Reis, Lineu Belico dos
Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio
Title in Portuguese
Proposta de inserção de usinas hidrelétricas reversíveis como mecanismo de armazenamento no Setor Elétrico Brasileiro
Keywords in Portuguese
Armazenamento de energia
Demanda de pico
Energias renováveis
LCOE
Usina hidrelétrica reversível (UHER)
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta tese analisa os custos de produção de usinas hidrelétricas reversíveis (UHERs) no Brasil e sugere modelos de mercado que possam incentivar a participação destes empreendimentos reconhecidos por adicionarem flexibilidade aos sistemas de potência. Partindo da constatação que o crescimento das energias renováveis tem impactado de forma relevante o funcionamento dos sistemas elétricos por se constituírem em fontes não despacháveis, reconhece-se que o armazenamento de energia pode cooperar para mitigar tais impactos. Dentre as tecnologias de armazenamento, as UHERs são as que apresentam maior capacidade instalada no mundo e, mais especificamente, um grande potencial no vasto parque hidráulico brasileiro. Diante de tal contexto, o objetivo desta tese é analisar a participação de usinas reversíveis como mecanismo de armazenamento de energia no Setor Elétrico Brasileiro (SEB). Para isto, em um primeiro momento, foi realizada uma comparação entre o desempenho de uma UHER em relação às usinas termelétricas a gás natural no atendimento à demanda de pico no Brasil por meio do método do levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Em um segundo momento, foram propostos modelos de comercialização que valorassem adequadamente a energia armazenada. Os resultados das simulações realizadas indicam que para operações acima de 7 horas por dia, as UHERs apresentam custos inferiores aos das termelétricas a gás. Para as operações de menor duração, as tecnologias de atendimento à demanda de pico através de termelétricas a gás mostram-se mais viáveis. Logo, há cenários em que as usinas reversíveis são de fato competitivas, e podem ser especialmente úteis para países que, como o Brasil, contam com uma significativa participação de fontes hidráulicas no seu portfólio de geração. Para que tais cenários se tornem factíveis, será importante que o SEB consiga remunerar seus vários tipos de geração, levando em conta os serviços relacionados à demanda sistêmica de flexibilidade operativa no curto prazo. Como proposta para tornar essa realidade possível, sugere-se a adoção de medidas que contemplem os diferentes atributos no provimento da energia, tais como a remuneração pelos serviços ancilares e a implementação de mercado de congestionamento de rede e de mercado de capacidade.
Title in English
Assessment of integration of pumped hydro plants as energy storage technology in the Brazilian Electric Sector
Keywords in English
Energy storage
LCOE
Peak demand
Pumped hydro storage (PHS)
Renewable energy
Abstract in English
The present study analyses the production costs of pumped hydro storage (PHS) in Brazil and suggests some architectures that may encourage the participation of this technology which adds flexibility to power systems. The cost of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, has been steadily declining and these technologies are increasingly installed in several countries. However, the growth of renewable energies has had a significant impact on the settings of power systems. While there are significant advances towards a low carbon generation portfolio, new challenges arise from the operation of variable sources. Energy storage systems can mitigate the effects of non-dispatchable renewable energies. Among the storage technologies, PHS has the world largest installed capacity it shows prominent potential in the Brazilian energy mix. Considering this context, especially in the Brazilian electricity market, this thesis has a main objective to propose trading arrangements to allow the participation of PHS as a mechanism of energy storage in the Brazilian Electric Sector (BES). Thus, this study made a diagnosis of the production costs of PHS in the current market, suggesting afterwards some measures that can improve the performance of such power plants. Firstly, a comparison between a PHS and some natural gas thermoelectric plants in the service of peak demand in Brazil was carried out using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) method. Secondly, market designs were presented for this type of energy storage. Regarding the plants that were candidates for expansion, government plans and literature data were used. The results of the simulations show that for operations above 7 hours per day, PHS presents lower costs than the compared alternatives. For shorter operations, traditional peak demand technologies that operate on natural gas are the most cost-effective. Thus, there are scenarios in which PHS could be interesting for countries that, like Brazil, have a significant share of hydraulic sources in their electricity mix. For such scenarios to become a reality, BES must remunerate the power plants for the services related to the flexibility provided in the short term. Flexibility is among the list of services delivered by PHS and other storage systems. Among the measures that encourage PHS, it is appointed the remuneration ancillary services, the implementation of network congestion fee and the capacity markets.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-08-05
 
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