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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.102.2021.tde-30062021-115001
Document
Author
Full name
Nathalia Biagiotti
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2021
Supervisor
Committee
Franieck, Rosana Maria Caram (President)
Lukiantchuki, Marieli Azoia
Roriz, Victor Figueiredo
Sacht, Helenice Maria
Title in Portuguese
Câmera Termográfica como ferramenta de caracterização do comportamento térmico de fachadas
Keywords in Portuguese
Câmera termográfica
Comportamento térmico
Fachadas
Termografia
Abstract in Portuguese
A utilização da câmera termográfica como ferramenta na construção civil tem crescido significativamente e vem contribuindo para o aperfeiçoamento das construções, principalmente para análise e caracterização do conforto térmico das edificações. Tradicionalmente, nas situações em que se necessita medir temperaturas, são utilizados equipamentos como os termopares, no entanto a termografia trata-se de uma técnica relativamente simples e nada invasiva. Essa técnica utiliza da radiação infravermelha do espectro eletromagnético para gerar imagens térmicas que representam a distribuição das temperaturas superficiais de um corpo. O objetivo principal dessa pesquisa é analisar o potencial de uso da câmera termográfica como ferramenta para avaliar a temperatura superficial das fachadas e caracterizar seu comportamento térmico. Essa pesquisa oferece subsídios para os profissionais da área a respeito da importância da composição das fachadas, dos caixilhos e da cor utilizada na fachada para o ganho de calor num edifício, assim como, apresenta uma análise comparativa das ferramentas utilizadas, a câmera termográfica e o termômetro infravermelho de superfície com mira a laser. Para a investigação térmica foram definidos dois edifícios comerciais na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, o Centro Profissional Ribeirão Shopping e o Hotel Tryp by Whydam, para os quais foi realizado o levantamento projetual detalhado e características com base em material disponibilizado por cada empreendimento. Foi realizado ainda, um estudo de incidência solar no programa Archicad versão 21, evidenciando os horários de maior radiação solar em cada face das fachadas. E por fim a investigação das características térmicas ocorreu por meio de termogramas, das temperaturas superficiais obtidas pelo termômetro infravermelho e das temperaturas do ar interno e externo aferidas por um termômetro registrador de dados. Todas medições capturados de duas faces das fachadas, para diferentes orientações. Os resultados obtidos possibilitaram identificar diferentes fenômenos como pontes térmicas, ganho de calor, atraso térmico, temperatura superficial e absortância. Foi possível verificar as diferentes cores externas da fachada através do termograma capturado no interior do edifício e comparar a evolução da temperatura superficial das fachadas com relação à temperatura do ar externo e interno, além de comparar as temperaturas obtidas no termograma com as temperaturas obtidas no termômetro. Entre os principais resultados temos a paridade do comportamento térmico entre vigas com acabamento externo em cor clara e escura; a comparação do comportamento térmico das faces leste e oeste, nordeste e sudoeste e a relação entre as temperaturas obtidas entre a câmera termográfica e o termômetro infravermelho. Por fim, foi confirmado o alto potencial da câmera termográfica ao comparar as temperaturas obtidas no termograma com as temperaturas superficiais capturadas com o infravermelho.
Title in English
Thermographic camera as a tool for characterizing the termal behavior of facades
Keywords in English
Facades
Thermal behavior
Thermographic câmera
Thermography
Abstract in English
The use of the thermographic camera as a tool in civil construction has grown significantly and has contributed to the improvement of constructions, mainly for the analysis and characterization of thermal comfort in buildings. Traditionally, equipment such as thermocouples is used, however thermography is a relatively simple and non-invasive technique. The thermography technique uses infrared radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum to generate thermal images that represent the distribution of the surface temperatures of a body. The main objective of this research is to use the thermographic camera as a tool to evaluate the surface temperature of the facades and to characterize its thermal behavior. In view of this, the facades are characterized in terms of materiality, construction system and surface temperature; being possible to compare the thermal behavior of the facades with the same materiality and different solar orientations. In order to prove the efficiency of the thermographic camera as a tool for analyzing thermal behavior, the laser thermometer and data logger were used in order to compare the results obtained with such tools. For the thermal investigation, two commercial buildings were defined in the city of Ribeirão Preto, the Centro Profissional Ribeirão Shopping and the Hotel Tryp by Whydam, deliberated according to criteria that will be explained in the course of this work. The methodology consists of the characterization of the buildings and the experimental procedure. In order to characterize the buildings, a design survey of both was carried out, using material made available by each project, and the study of solar incidence in the Archicad version 21 program, showing the times of greatest solar radiation on each face of the facades. For the thermal investigation, thermograms were captured on two sides of the facades, for different solar orientations, every two hours, for one day, from 6 am to 7 pm. Measurements were also made with a laser thermometer at specific points according to the structural system of each building. The results obtained with the thermographic images, the temperature measurements of the laser thermometer, the data logger and the insolation study, made it possible to identify different phenomena such as thermal bridges, heat gain, thermal delay, surface temperature and absorbance. It was also possible to identify the facade materiality through the thermogram and to compare the thermal behavior of the facade with the same solar orientation, but with a different external finish and also of facades with different solar orientation and even external finish. The obtained thermograms showed clearly and visually the external finish of the facades, the elevation of the surface temperature on the surfaces during the day, in addition to proving how the absorption influences the heat gain of the facades. Among the main results we have the parity of the thermal behavior between beams with external finishing in light and dark color; the comparison of the thermal behavior of the east and west, northeast and southwest faces and the relationship between the temperatures obtained between the thermographic camera and the laser thermometer. Finally, the high potential of the thermographic camera was confirmed by comparing the temperatures obtained in the thermogram with the temperatures captured with the laser thermometer.
 
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Publishing Date
2022-05-19
 
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