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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.10.2020.tde-09122019-155332
Document
Author
Full name
Karen Nascimento da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Gomes, Viviani (President)
Baccili, Camila Costa
Nichi, Marcilio
Title in Portuguese
Influência dos fatores maternos sobre o perfil sanitário e desempenho de novilhas Holandesas
Keywords in Portuguese
Paridade
Peso ao nascimento
Prematuridade
Sazonalidade
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi avaliar o impacto dos fatores maternos sobre o perfil sanitário, desempenho e performance reprodutiva do nascimento até o 1º parto. Para tanto, foram monitoradas 226 bezerras Holandesas por meio da análise dos registros da fazenda associado ao exame clínico e laboratorial entre T0 (1º dia do desmame), T1, T3, T5, T7, T15, T30 e T60. Apenas a sazonalidade influenciou na frequência de tratamentos para diarreias na fase de aleitamento, observando-se 4,04 vezes mais chances (IC 95% 1,84 - 8,85) de tratamento para os animais nascidos nos meses frios em relação aos meses quentes do ano. Em relação à época do desmame, as novilhas desaleitadas nos meses quentes apresentaram menores chances para diarreia no T3 (ODDs ratio = 0,053; IC 95% 0,007-429) e T5 (ODDs ratio= 0,009; IC 95% 0,007-0,495%). O exame clínico das bezerras ao desaleitamento (T0) revelou que as filhas das primíparas em relação às multíparas apresentaram 2,04 maiores chances de DRB (IC 95% 1,20- 3,47). As bezerras desaleitadas nos meses frios apresentaram maior 1,15 chances a mais de apresentarem DRB (IC95% 1,097-3,223). Fenômeno semelhante foi observado para Tristeza Parasitária Bovina, no qual as bezerras desaleitadas no inverno apresentaram 2,17 (IC 95% 0,21- 21,89). Em relação aos exames laboratoriais, as filhas de primíparas apresentaram maiores teores de haptoglobina - Hp (3,26±0,48 mg/dL) comparadas às multíparas (2,34±0,30mg/dL) no T7. O peso ao nascimento também influenciou nos teores de Hp no T0, observando-se maiores valores nos animais com peso entre 41 e 45 kg (3,06±0,50 mg/dL) comparados com novilhas nascidas com peso inferior a 35 kg (2,61±0,55 mg/dL) e entre 36-40 kg (2,60±0,43 mg/dL). A época do desmame influenciou à concentração de Hp, sendo que os maiores valores foram detectados nos animais desaleitados na primavera (2,20±1,00mg/dL) que outono (1,98±0,24mg/dL) e inverno (2,81±0,41mg/dL). Em relação ao desempenho entre T0 e T60 detectou-se as seguintes diferenças entre as variáveis independentes: menor peso nas novilhas nascidas de partos distócicos (P=0,05) no T60; menor peso ao nascimento (P<0,0001) e no 1o dia do desmame (T0) (P=0,04) nas novilhas prematuras comparadas bezerras nascidas à termo; as bezerras nascidas mais leves (<35 kg) apresentaram menor peso ao desmame comparadas com as novilhas mais pesadas(36-45 Kg) (P=0001). O ganho de peso total acumulado entre T0 e T60 foi maior nas novilhas desaleitadas no inverno, seguido do outono e primavera (P=0,008). Em relação aos dados reprodutivos, a taxa de perdas gestacionais foi maior nas novilhas nascidas no inverno, seguidas do verão e outono (P<0,0001); novilhas filhas de primíparas apresentaram um retardo na idade ao primeiro parto (P=0,05); novilhas nascidas prematuras precisaram de maior número doses de sêmen para alcançar a primeira concepção (P=0,02), e consequentemente apresentaram maior idade ao 1o parto (P=0,03); novilhas nascidas no inverno levaram menos tempo para atingir a idade ao primeiro parto, seguido do outono e inverno (P=0,0010). Conclui-se que alguns fatores maternos e a sazonalidade aumentaram o risco para doenças na fase de aleitamento e desaleitamento, além de impactar negativamente no desempenho e reprodução futura das novilhas.
Title in English
Influence of maternal factors on health and performance in Holstein heifers
Keywords in English
Birth Weight
Parity
Prematurity
Seasonality
Abstract in English
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of maternal factors on health, growth and reproductive performance of Holstein calves from birth until the first delivery. Therefore, 226 Holstein female calves were monitored by analyzing the farm records of the clinical examination and laboratory tests between T0 (1st day of weaning), T1, T3, T5, T7, T15, T30, and T60. Only seasonality influenced the frequency of treatment against diarrhea during the suckling phase because animals born in the warm months when compared to animals born in the warm months show 4.04 more likely (95% CI 1.84 - 8.85) of to receive treatment. Heifer that were weaned in the warm months were less likely to have diarrhea on T3 (ODDs ratio = 0,053; IC 95% 0,007- 429) and T5 (ODDs ratio = 0,009; CI95% 0,007-0,495%). The clinical examination of weaned heifers (T0) revealed that primiparous daughters, when compared to multiparous daughters, had 2.04 higher chances of BRD (95% CI 1.20-3.47). Weaned heifers in the cold months were 1,15 more likely to have DRB (CI95% 1,097-3,223). A similar situation was observed for babesiosis and anaplasmosis that the weaned heifers presented 2.17 more likely (CI95% 0,21- 21,89) to present those diseases. Primiparous daughters had higher levels of haptoglobin - Hp (3.26 ± 0.48 mg / dL) when compared to multiparous daughters (2.34± 0.30 mg/dL) in T7. Birth weight influenced Hp levels at T0 with higher values for animals with live weight between 41 and 45 kg (3.06± 0.50 mg/dL) when compared to heifers born weighing less than 35 kg (2.61± 0.55 mg/dL) and between 36-40 kg (2.60 ± 0.43 mg/dL). The weaning period influenced the Hp concentration, and the highest values were detected in the weaned animals in spring (2.20 ± 1.00mg/dL) than autumn (1.98 ± 0.24mg / dL) and winter (2,81± 0.41mg/dL). Regarding the growth between T0 and T60, the differences were detected between the independent variables: lower live weight in heifer calves born from dystocic calves (P = 0.05) in T60; lower birth weight (P<0.0001) and live weight on the first day of weaning (T0) (P = 0.04) in premature calves when compared to full-term calves; heifer calves born lighter (<35 kg) had lower weaning weight when compared to heavier heifers (36-45 kg) (P = 0001). The accumulated weight gain between T0 and T60 was higher in the heifers was weaned in winter, followed by autumn and spring (P = 0.008). The pregnancy loss rate was higher in winter-born heifers followed by summer and autumn (P <0.0001); primiparous daughters had a delayed age at first calving (P = 0.05); heifers born prematurely needed higher doses of semen to reach the first conception (P = 0.02), and consequently presented higher age at the 1st calving (P = 0.03); winter-born heifer calves took less time to reach age at first calving, followed by fall and winter (P = 0.0010). In conclusion, maternal factors and seasonality increased the risk for diseases in the suckling and weaning phase and harmed the performance and reproduction performance of heifers.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-05-07
 
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