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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.10.2007.tde-04092007-082038
Document
Author
Full name
Bruno Garcia Botaro
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Pirassununga, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Santos, Marcos Veiga dos (President)
Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo
Rennó, Francisco Palma
Title in Portuguese
Variantes genéticas de beta-lactoglobulina em vacas leiteiras e características físico-químicas e de composição do leite
Keywords in Portuguese
β-lactoglobulina
Composição do leite
Estabilidade do leite
Proteína
Vaca-leiteira
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre o polimorfismo da β-lactoglobulina e as características físico-químicas (pH, acidez e crioscopia), de composição (gordura, sólidos totais, uréia, proteína bruta, proteína verdadeira, nitrogênio não-protéico e caseína), e de estabilidade do leite. Para tanto, 11 rebanhos leiteiros foram selecionados, 5 da raça Holandesa e 6 da raça Girolanda, dos quais foram coletadas 4 amostras de leite de 164 vacas da raça Holandesa e 74 da raça Girolanda, sendo duas coletas realizadas na estação das secas e 2 na estação das chuvas. Cada amostra foi submetida à análise de composição e de características físico-químicas. Para a identificação do genótipo para β-lactoglobulina, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de cada vaca, as quais foram submetidas à reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR), determinando-se as freqüências alélicas e genotípicas dos animais. A estabilidade do leite foi avaliada pelo teste de estabilidade ao etanol, nas seguintes concentrações alcoólicas: 70, 76, 80 e 84ºGL. As freqüências genotípicas foram 0,28, 0,30 e 0,41 para os genótipos AA, AB e BB, respectivamente. A freqüência do alelo B foi maior que do alelo A, 0,52 e 0,47, para a raça Holandesa, e 0,58 e 0,41, para a raça Girolanda, respectivamente. Não houve efeito do polimorfismo da β-lactoglobulina (AA, AB e BB), entre os animais das raças, avaliadas sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e a composição do leite. Observou-se efeito de raça (Holandesa e Girolanda, respectivamente) sobre a acidez titulável (16,16 e 17,07°D) e pH (6,78 e 6,75), e de composição do leite quanto as variáveis gordura (3,31 e 3,20%), NUL (16,62 e 14,45mg/dL) e PB (3,13 e 3,04%). Houve efeito da estação (chuvosa e seca, respectivamente) sobre as características físico-químicas de acidez titulável (16,62 e 16,34°D), pH (6,76 e 6,79) e crioscopia (-0,5411 e -0,5376°H), e de composição do leite quanto as variáveis lactose (4,34 e 4,50%), sólidos totais (11,65 e 11,90%), LogCCS (2,44 e 2,34), PB (3,08 e 3,14%), PV (2,84 e 2,91%), caseína (2,01 e 2,13%) e relação caseína:proteína verdadeira (0,70 e 0,72). Verificou-se também efeito da raça e estação do ano sobre a estabilidade do leite, sendo que o leite foi mais instável para raça Girolanda e durante a estação seca, mas não se observou efeito do polimorfismo da β-lactoglobulina sobre esta característica.
Title in English
Beta-lactoglobulina polymorphism in dairy cows and milk composition and physico-chemical characteristics
Keywords in English
β-lactoglobulin
Dairy cow
Milk composition
Milk stability
Protein
Abstract in English
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between beta-lactogobulin polymorphism and physico-chemical characteristics, composition (fat, total solids, urea, crude protein, true protein, non protein nitrogen and casein), and stability of milk. For this aim, 11 dairy herds were selected, six of them composed of crossbred Holstein-Zebu (H-Z) cows and five from Holstein cows. Milk samples were taken four times (twice in dry season and twice in rainy season), from 278 Holstein and 156 crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows. Individual milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and physico-chemical properties. For β-lactoglobulin polymorphism analysis, 10 mL of blood samples were ollected from each cow and then submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following β-lactoglobulin protein variants detection, genotype and allele frequencies for the 11 herds were analyzed. Heat stability of milk was determined by the alcohol-induced precipitation test, using the following ethanol concentrations 70, 76, 80 and 84ºGL. The genotype frequencies were 0.28, 0.30 and 0.41 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Allele B frequency was higher than A, 0.52 and 0.47, for Holstein cows, 0.58 and 0.41, for Holstein-Zebu, respectively. Genetic variants of β-lactoglobulin (AA, AB and BB) had no effect on physico-chemical (acidity, pH and crioscopy), and compositional characteristics (fat, total solids, urea, crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, true protein and casein percentages), either among milk from Holstein cows, or from crossbred Holstein-Zebu. Breed effect for Holstein and H-Z on titrable acidity (16,16 and 17,07°D, respectively), pH (6,78 and 6,75, respectively), fat (3,31e 3,20%, respectively), milk urea nitrogen (16,62 e 14,45mg/dL, respectively) and crude protein (3,13 e 3,04%, respectively) could be observed. Effect of seasonality between rainy and dry seasons was also observed on physico-chemical variables of titrable acidity (16,62 and 16,34°D, respectively), pH (6,76 and 6,79, respectively) and freezing point (-0,5411and -0,5376°H, respectively), and on composition characteristics of lactose (4,34 and 4,50%, respectively), total solids (11,65 and 11,90%, respectively), LogCCS (2,44 and 2,34, respectively), crude protein (3,08 and 3,14%, respectively), true protein (2,84 and 2,91%, respectively), casein content (2,01 and 2,13%, respectively) and casein:true protein ratio (0,70 and 0,72, respectively). Effect of breed and seasonality on milk ethanol stability test was observed. Holstein-Zebu milk was ethanol-unstable on dry season. No effect of β-lactoglobulin on milk stability was observed.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-10-01
 
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