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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.96.2012.tde-11062012-145430
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Carolina Costa Corrêa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Assaf Neto, Alexandre (President)
Lima, Fabiano Guasti
Perera, Luiz Carlos Jacob
Title in Portuguese
Os fatores determinantes da geração de valor em empresas não financeiras de capital aberto brasileiras
Keywords in Portuguese
Desempenho financeiro
Direcionadores de valor
Gestao Baseada em Valor
Indicadores financeiros
Lucro econômico
Valor economico agregado (VEA)
Abstract in Portuguese
No contexto atual dos mercados globalizados, as empresas enfrentam uma competicao cada vez mais complexa na obtencao de capital. Para atrai-lo, elas precisam oferecer um retorno que remunere o risco assumido pelos investidores, ou seja, gerar valor. A Gestao Baseada no Valor defende a maximizacao de riqueza dos acionistas como a meta principal da organizacao. No Brasil, essa abordagem tem sido adotada de forma mais intensa na ultima decada, tornando evidente a necessidade de monitorar o valor da firma nessa economia. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os principais direcionadores de valor das empresas de capital aberto nao financeiras brasileiras, representadas pelas companhias com acoes negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (BM&FBOVESPA), no periodo de 2000 a 2009. Para isso, foram avaliados quais indicadores financeiros estavam mais relacionados a geracao de valor, representada pelo Valor Economico Agregado (VEA), de forma a serem considerados direcionadores desse em cada setor economico. As tecnicas estatísticas utilizadas para esse proposito foram: correlacao, teste t para diferenca de medias entre as empresas com VEA positivo e negativo, regressao multipla, regressao em painel e regressão logistica. Um dos principais resultados encontrados foi que pelo menos dois tercos dos indicadores financeiros utilizados para analise de empresas nao explicam a geracao de valor. Considerando o universo pesquisado, os indicadores financeiros significativamente relacionados a geracao de valor foram: retorno sobre o patrimonio liquido (ROE), retorno sobre o ativo (ROA), spread do acionista, margem bruta, margem liquida e giro do ativo, todos com coeficiente positivo, ou seja, com relacao direta com o VEA. Alem disso, na analise dos setores economicos, por suas caracteristicas especificas, foram encontradas divergencias entre os indicadores financeiros considerados direcionadores de valor. Em relacao ao desempenho das empresas no periodo de analise, observou-se que a maioria delas destruiu valor, ja que apenas 30% obtiveram valor economico agregado anual positivo. Porem, nao ha uniformidade entre os setores, pois as porcentagens medias variaram de 6,7% (setor textil) a 66,7% (setor de petroleo e gas). Outra contribuicao deste trabalho foi a avaliacao das diferencas na geracao de valor das empresas brasileiras antes e apos a crise do subprime. Como resultado tem-se que, embora o ano de 2009 tenha sido o segundo pior nesse quesito, nao foi encontrada diferenca significativa, no conjunto, entre os periodos antes e depois da crise, apesar das divergencias identificadas entre os setores. Esta pesquisa inova pela sua amplitude, ao utilizar um significativo numero de indicadores financeiros (33), que refletem o resultado de estrategias da empresa ligadas a estrutura de capital, rentabilidade, liquidez, operacao e investimento e, tambem, uma ampla base de dados (345 empresas, totalizando 2.205 relatorios anuais), abrangendo dez anos de analise em quinze setores economicos. Assim, espera-se que os resultados contribuam para subsidiar a tomada de decisao nas organizacoes, utilizando a abordagem da Gestao Baseada no Valor, bem como para auxiliar na selecao e monitoramento das empresas pelos investidores.
Title in English
The determinants of value creation in non-financial publicly traded Brazilian companies
Keywords in English
Economic profit
Economic Value Added (EVA®)
Financial indicators
Financial performance
Value Based Management (VBM)
Value drivers
Abstract in English
In the current context of globalized markets, the enterprises face a competition more and more complex in the capital obtainment. To attract it, they need to offer a return that rewards the risk taken by the investors, in other words, create value. The Value Based Management (VBM) defends the shareholders wealth maximization as the main goal of the firm. In Brazil, this approach has been adopted more intensively in the last decade, becoming evident the need of monitoring the business value in this economy. In this context, the objective of this study was to identify the main value drivers of non-financial publicly traded Brazilian companies, represented by the ones with shares traded in the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA), in the period from 2000 to 2009. For this purpose, it was evaluated which financial indicators were more associated to the value creation, represented by the Economic Value Added (EVAR), in a way that they could be considered value drivers in each economic sector. The statistical techniques used to obtain the results were: correlation, test t for mean differences between the firms with EVAR positive and negative, multiple regression, panel regression and logit model. One of the main results obtained was that at least two thirds of the financial indicators used for company analysis don't explain the value creation. Considering the universe studied, the financial indicators significantly related to the value creation were: return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), shareholder spread, gross margin, net margin and asset turnover, all of them with positive coefficient, what means that they have direct relation with EVAR. Furthermore, in the analysis of the economic sectors, because of their specific features, it was found differences between the financial indicators considered value drivers. In relation to the companies' performance in the period analyzed, it was observed that most of them destroyed value, since only 30% obtained positive annual economic value added. However, there is no uniformity between the sectors, because the average percentages varied from 6.7% (textile sector) to 66.7% (oil and gas sector). Another contribution of this assignment was the analysis of the differences in the Brazilian companies' value creation before and after the subprime crisis. As a result, despite the fact that the year of 2009 had been the second worst in this criterion, it was found no significant difference, considering the whole sample, between the periods before and after the crisis. However, divergences were identified between the sectors. This research innovates for its extent, using a significant number of financial indicators (33), which reflect the result of the firm strategies connected to capital structure, profitability, liquidity, operation and investment, besides a wide database (345 companies, totalizing 2,205 annual reports), covering ten years of analysis in fifteen economic sectors. Therefore, it is expected that the results contribute to subsidize the decision making in the organizations, using the approach of Value Based Management, as well as to help the selection and monitoring of the firms by the investors.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-07-03
 
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