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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.86.2008.tde-14052008-113901
Document
Author
Full name
Alexandre Uhlig de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Goldemberg, Jose (President)
Brito, Jose Otavio
Coelho, Suani Teixeira
Moreira, Jose Roberto
Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta
Title in Portuguese
Lenha e carvão vegetal no Brasil: balanço oferta-demanda e métodos para a estimação do consumo
Keywords in Portuguese
biomassa
carvão vegetal
fontes alternativas de energia
lenha
Abstract in Portuguese
As estatísticas de produção e consumo de lenha e carvão vegetal existentes para o Brasil apresentam diferenças significativas entre si. Como não estão disponíveis os métodos utilizados, o que permitiria identificar os critérios utilizados, foram desenvolvidos métodos para estimar o consumo de lenha e carvão vegetal e elaborado um balanço oferta-demanda de madeira. Os métodos foram elaborados buscando simplicidade, robustez e disponibilidade de informações. Os métodos foram testados para o período 1996 - 2005 e comparados com os dados do Balanço Energético Nacional - BEN, elaborado pelo Ministério das Minas e Energia - MME. Os resultados mostram pequenas diferenças para o consumo total de lenha e carvão vegetal. Por outro lado, existem diferenças significativas no consumo setorial. Em 2005, quando comparado com o BEN, o consumo calculado de lenha no setor residencial é a metade, no setor agropecuário é o triplo, no setor de serviços e na industria é 26,5% e 14,6% menor, respectivamente. O consumo de carvão vegetal cai nos setores residencial e de serviços, 62,9% e 82,7%, respectivamente e cresce 10,0% e 812,3% nos setores industrial e agropecuário, respectivamente. No diagnóstico realizado sobre o uso de lenha e carvão vegetal no Brasil, foram identificadas regiões suscetíveis a problemas de oferta e que deverão ser alvo de estudos aprofundados para não comprometer a quantidade de madeira disponível de forma sustentável. O balanço é o resultado da diferença entre a oferta e a produção de madeira em nível municipal, que corresponde à menor unidade espacial com informação disponível para o Brasil. As regiões mais críticas no que se refere à produção de madeira para fins energéticos encontram-se nos Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais e Bahia. É importante destacar que mesmo municípios com balanços positivos podem apresentar situações de déficit devido à exploração excessiva e pontual de madeira.
Title in English
Fuelwood and charcoal in Brazil: supply-demand balance and methods for consumption estimation.
Keywords in English
alternative energy sources
biomass
charcoal
fuelwood
Abstract in English
Fuelwood and charcoal statistics for Brazil present important differences between them. Once the methods used to estimate production and consumption of these woodfuels are not available, which would allow to identify the used criteria, methods were developed to estimate the fuelwood and charcoal consumption and it was also elaborated a supply-demand balance of woodfuels. The methods were prepared seeking simplicity, robustness and availability of information. The methods were tested for the 1996 - 2005 period and compared with data from Brazilian Energy Balance (BEB), produced by Mines and Energy Ministry. The results show little differences for total fuelwood and charcoal consumption. On the other hand, there are expressive differences in sector consumption. In 2005, the fuelwood consumption in residential sector estimated by this study is half of Brazilian Energy Balance data. In agriculture is triple and in services sector and industry is 26.5% and 14.6% less than BEB data, respectively. The charcoal consumption decreases in residential and services sectors in 62.9% and 82.7%, respectively and grows 10.0% and 812.3% in industrial and agriculture, respectively. In the spatial assessment of fuelwood and charcoal use in Brazil, hotspots were identified concerning supply problems, which should be studied in order not to endanger the availability of woodfuels. The balance is the difference between supply and demand of woodfuel in the municipal level, which corresponds to the minimum administrative unit with available information for Brazil. The more critical woodfuels production hotspots are located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and Bahia States. It is important to highlight that even municipal districts with positive balances may present fuelwood deficits due to an excessive and punctual wood exploitation.
 
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UHLIG_Tese1.pdf (5.97 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2008-05-16
 
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