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Mémoire de Maîtrise
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2011.tde-10102011-112548
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Julio Cesar Ferreira
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2011
Directeur
Jury
Navarro, Eduardo de Almeida (Président)
Carvalhinhos, Patricia de Jesus
Gonzalez, Rafael Ruiz
Titre en portugais
As fontes culturais elaboradas sincreticamente no teatro anchietano
Mots-clés en portugais
Introdução do cristianismo no Brasil
Mitos indígenas elaborados
Primórdios do teatro no Brasil
Sincretismo no Teatro brasileiro
Teatro Anchietano
Resumé en portugais
O objetivo desse trabalho é compreender como o Padre José de Anchieta elaborou sua obra dramática, composta por doze autos teatrais, unindo a cultura européia, fortemente influenciada pelo cristianismo, com a cultura indígena brasileira. Para isso serão analisados alguns costumes e mitos indígenas descritos pelos cronistas que viajaram pelo Brasil no Século XVI. Também será abordada a tradição teatral em Portugal nas variantes Popular, mimos, jograis e entremezes; Escolar, comédias e tragédias clássicas; e Religiosa composta por pastoris, presépios e autos. E finalmente a analise das peças de Teatro de José de Anchieta, escritas em tupi ou que contenham fragmentos em tupi, buscando o sincretismo que o mesmo desenvolveu em sua obra. Anchieta falava para um público composto por colonos europeus, muitos dos quais degredados e índios falantes da língua brasílica, portanto um público totalmente novo, e para o entendimento da mensagem evangelizadora que seu teatro trazia fez-se necessário a re-elaboração dos elementos culturais indígenas e europeus iniciando um processo sincrético onde Deus (Jeová) tomará a forma de Tupã, os anjos ganharão assas coloridas ao modo das emplumagens1 indígena e o Demônio será dividido em vários personagens, diferentemente da tradição judaico-cristã e mais próxima a cultura indígena brasileira que acreditava em vários demônios. Esses receberão nomes de índios inimigos dos portugueses e características que compõem alguns dos seres espirituais que aterrorizavam os amerabas como o Curupira, o Caapora, o Baetata e outros. Alguns costumes como a poligamia, as cauinagens2 e a antropofagia, ritual no qual os índios devoravam seus prisioneiros para se vingar da morte de seus antepassados; serão criticados no teatro anchietano. Porem outros costumes serão aceitos e re-significados como a abertura de caminhos para os Karaibas3, o desbaste e varredura das trilhas na qual passariam os Profetas errantes; ou a troca de nome dos algozes dos prisioneiros, costume que mais tarde será incorporado pelos padres para falar sobre o batismo; incentivando o índio a assumir um novo nome mas desta vez cristão e uma nova personalidade, disposta a abandonar suas praticas ancestrais. Compreender os primórdios do teatro no Brasil, escrito pelo Padre José de Anchieta nos idos do Século XVI, é buscar entender as características que deram inicio a formação da cultura brasileira.
Titre en anglais
The cultural sources syncretically elaborated in Anchieta's theater
Mots-clés en anglais
Re-elaborated native myths
The Anchietas theater
The earliest time of the theater in Brazil
The introduction of the Christianity in Brazil
The syncretism in the theater of Brazil
Resumé en anglais
The aim of this work is the understanding on José de Anchieta, a catholic priest, who has developed his literary composition which was distributed in twelve theatrical plays. He connected the European culture strongly influenced by the Christianity with the Brazilian indigenous culture. Some myths and habits described by the historians who had travelled throughout Brazil in the XVI century will be accurately studied. It will also be mentioned the tradition of the theater in Portugal in its popular diversity as: mimes, narrative novels spoken on the streets and dramatic theater games; in the school tradition, the comedies and tragedies; and in the religious, the feast that celebrates Jesus nativity and the plays about religious theater. Anchieta started to talk to an audience constituted by European settlers most of them were in fact banished people and he also spoke to the native who could speak the Brazilian language. By the way, it was a very brand new audience for him. Therefore for the Gospel message be understandable through his plays, it was necessary a re-elaboration about the European and the native cultural elements to launch a syncretic process where the Christian God (Jeová) is going to take the form of Tupã; the angels are going to win colored wings as it is in the native way; the Devil is going to be diversified in more than one and will be called by native names with such characteristics known as being the Curupira the Caapora, the Baetata and other native devils. Some of the native habits as the polygamy, the fact of some native having several wives; the cauinagens, feasts where the native drank a fermented beverage made mainly of roots and fruit; the anthropophagi, a ritual where the native practiced devouring prisoners from their rival tribes in order to revenge the death of their ancestors, all of these subjects are discussed in Anchietas theater. However, other habits will be accepted and re-signified as the opening of the paths for the karaíbas; the trimming and the sweep of these paths where the errant prophets would pass by; or changing the names of their executioners. Such a habit that lately it will be utilizable by the priests to speak about the baptism where the native would assume a new name and a new personality. To understand the beginning of the first steps of the theater in Brazil, written by José de Anchieta in the early of the XVI century is to search for an understanding of the characteristics that initiated the formation of the Brazilian culture.
 
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Date de Publication
2011-10-10
 
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