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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2017.tde-24102017-194312
Document
Author
Full name
Marilia Bueno de Araujo Ariza
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Machado, Maria Helena Pereira Toledo (President)
Gomes, Flavio dos Santos
Grinberg, Keila
Mamigonian, Beatriz Gallotti
Schwarcz, Lilia Katri Moritz
Title in Portuguese
Mães infames, rebentos venturosos: mulheres e crianças, trabalho e emancipação em São Paulo (século XIX)
Keywords in Portuguese
Contratos de soldada
Emancipação
Ingênuos
Libertas
Maternidade
Mulheres e crianças pobres
Tutelas
Abstract in Portuguese
A tese ora apresentada procura discutir, a partir da análise de contratos de trabalho, artigos de jornal e, principalmente, autos produzidos no âmbito do Juízo de Órfãos da cidade de São Paulo, as condições de agenciamento e trabalho de menores de idade e suas alterações, ao longo do século XIX notadamente em sua segunda metade, diante da aproximação da abolição e seus desdobramentos. Concentrando-se nas dimensões dessas transformações estruturais vividas pelos próprios trabalhadores menores de idade e por suas mães, em grande parte mulheres sós, empobrecidas e egressas da escravidão, a tese tem o objetivo de investigar, por um lado, as formas de organização familiar e as práticas de maternidade produzidas por mulheres populares chefes de família, profundamente afetadas pela imposição de normas sociais que consagravam os parâmetros da maternidade burguesa. Confrontadas as representações inatingíveis da maternidade ideal, mulheres empobrecidas eram qualificadas como tutoras inadequadas para os próprios filhos, que, assim, eram encaminhados aos cuidados e serviços de terceiros. Esses menores, por seu turno, desde sempre haviam frequentado as fileiras dos serviços urbanos em arranjos informais de trabalho, sendo empurrados à formalização, utilizada como instrumento de controle, diante dos abalos trazidos pelo acirramento das pressões da emancipação e do pós-abolição. Entre a formalidade e a informalidade do trabalho, as experiências de exploração e violência se repetiam para esses menores, que a elas regiam procurando, como podiam, saídas para suas vidas e arranjos de trabalho melhores. Ao mesmo tempo em que fala sobre a especificidade das experiências de menores de idade e suas mães, a tese procura endereçar suas histórias a um contexto ampliado de formulação de protocolos de trabalho livre, forjados ao longo do século XIX, que, mesmo na ressaca da abolição, espelhavam formas de exploração, dominação e resistência herdadas da escravidão.
Title in English
Infamous mothers, fortunate offspring: women and children, labor and emancipation in São Paulo (Nineteenth Century)
Keywords in English
Contratos de soldada
Emancipation
Ingênuos
Motherhood
Poor women and children Freed women
Tutelage
Abstract in English
Based on the analysis of work contracts, newspaper articles and mainly judicial records produced at the Ohphans Court, this dissertation aims at discussing the conditions under which underage laborers were recruited in the city of São Paulo over the Nineteenth Century especially during its second half, when abolition and its developments approached. It focuses on the dimensions of such structural changes experienced by underage workers themselves, as well as by their mothers, mostly single, poor head-of-family women coming out of slavery. The dissertation intends to investigate the family arrangements and mothering practices adopted by such women, which were deeply impacted by the establishment of social norms enshrining the parameters of bourgeoisie motherhood. Faced with unattainable representations of the ideal maternity, impoverished women were characterized as unfit tutors to their own children, who thus were conducted to the care and services of third parties. Furthermore, the dissertation also focuses on the underage workers, who had historically been engaged in urban service provision and informal work arrangements in the city. In the face of social turmoil brought on by pressures on the advancement of emancipation and the aftermath of abolition, such workers were forced into formal service arrangements, which intended to keep them under control the of their employers or former masters. Between the worlds of labor formality and informality,) experiences of exploitation and violence were constant, and child workers acted upon them the best they could. At the same time as it discusses the specificities of the experiences lived by underage workers and their mother, however, this dissertation intends to link their histories to a broader context of elaboration of free labor protocols forged over the Nineteenth Century which, even in the dawn of abolition, mirrored forms of exploitation, domination and resistance bequeathed by slavery.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-10-24
 
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