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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2006.tde-13072007-114942
Document
Author
Full name
Andréa Slemian
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Jancso, Istvan (President)
Costa, Wilma Peres
Gouvêa, Maria de Fátima Silva
Lopes, Jose Reinaldo de Lima
Morel, Marco
Title in Portuguese
Sob o império das leis: constituição e unidade na formação do Brasil (1822-1834)
Keywords in Portuguese
Constituição (história) - 1822-1934 - Brasil
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente tese trata do advento de uma ordem constitucional moderna no Brasil que, surgida a partir da crise e desagregação do Império português na América, viabilizaria a Independência e sustentaria a construção de uma nova unidade política. O foco de análise está no embate pela normatização de um arranjo político-institucional que vinculasse o "todo" e as "partes" do que, até 1822, reconhecera-se como português, com ênfase na definição de uma esfera provincial de poder. Defende-se que, num ambiente marcado por violentos conflitos em torno de diferentes projetos de unidade ao longo do Primeiro Reinado (1822-1831) e começo da Regência (1831-1834), a consecução de um pacto político mimetizado pela idéia de Constituição teve papel fundamental, reconhecido na prioridade conferida pelos nossos primeiros legisladores à implementação de reformas jurídicas para funcionamento da máquina pública. A experiência constitucional nesses anos iniciais do Brasil independente é entendida em conjunto com seus desdobramentos na Administração, tendo em vista que a criação das leis esteve intrinsecamente ligada à sua prática positiva, e que ambas, como partes constitutivas do que se denomina como Direito Público, forneceram os pilares de sustentação do novo Império. A partir daí, sustenta-se que a Carta Constitucional de 1824, ao contrário do que se pode imaginar, teve uma extraordinária eficácia na viabilização da estrutura de um novo Estado, como fica claro nos debates em torno de sua Reforma de 1831 a 1834. O espaço da produção legislativa revelou-se como campo central para compreensão do problema, pois que ele nascia sob um novo ideal de representação política - alicerçado na concepção revolucionária de que a "lei" criaria "Direito" e não o contrário - que adquiriu a legitimidade necessária para falar em nome da "nação
Title in English
Under the law´s empire: constitution and the national unity in the Brazil´s formation (1822-1834)
Keywords in English
Constitution (History) - 1822-1934 - Brazil
Abstract in English
In the present thesis I deal with the development of a modern constitutional order in Brazil. An order that was cradled by the crises and desegregation of the American Portuguese Empire and also responsible for the movement of Independence and the formation of a new political entity. I focus on the struggle for the enforcement of an arrangement, both institutional and political, that enabled the development of a tie between the totality and its parts, with an emphasis on the definition of a provincial sphere of power; a totality that, until 1822, recognized itself as Portuguese. During the First Reign (1822- 1831) and the beginning of the Regency period (1831-1834), in an environment scared by violent conflicts between those who fought for different political projects, a pact mirrored on the idea of a Constitution had a primary role. To such a degree, that our first legislators considered fundamental to put in motion judicial reforms that enabled the governmental apparatuses to work. I analyze the constitutional experience, in those first years after the Brazilian independence, together with its influence on the administration of the country. It is mandatory to do so because the making of laws was closely connected to their observance. And both, as parts of what is called Public Law, were the pillars of the new Empire. By taking that into account, I uphold that the Constitution of 1824, differently of what is usually imagined, was extremely effective on grounding the new State's structure, as it can be seen by the debates concerning its reform. The legislative scenario revealed itself central to the understanding of the problem. That scenario evolved under a new ideal of political representation, grounded on the revolutionary concept that "laws" were the bearer of the "Law"; and to such an extent that it had the legitimacy needed for legislators to speak for the "nation"
 
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Publishing Date
2007-08-20
 
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