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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2018.tde-06092018-150804
Document
Author
Full name
Marcos Rafael da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Janotti, Maria de Lourdes Monaco (President)
Gonçalves, Paulo Cesar
Luca, Tania Regina de
Malatian, Teresa Maria
Soares, Gabriela Pellegrino
Title in Portuguese
Os protocolos italianos (1892-1898)
Keywords in Portuguese
Brasil republicano
Diplomacia
Imigração
Itália
Nacionalismo
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente tese estuda as negociações diplomáticas entre Brasil e Itália para solucionar reclamações de imigrantes italianos residentes no país, conhecidas como Protocolos Italianos. Tais reclamações foram organizadas e compiladas pelo Consulado Italiano no Brasil e encaminhadas ao Ministério das Relações Exteriores (MRE) brasileiro, que instituiu comissões mistas para julga-las e o respectivo pagamento de indenizações aos reclamantes. Entre as reclamações constam por violências sofridas, invasão e saque perpetrados contra italianos por forças federais durante a Revolução Federalista; contratos não cumpridos entre italianos e a Administração Pública. No entanto, para efetivar o acordo foi necessária a aprovação da Câmara dos Deputados e do Senado Federal, em que parte dos deputados durante várias sessões se opuseram aos Protocolos, afirmando que eles feriam a honra nacional. Assim, intensos debates na Câmara, no Senado e, também, na imprensa foram travados a esse respeito. O zênite da questão foi os conflitos acirrados entre brasileiros e italianos nas ruas de São Paulo motivados pelos Protocolos Italianos. E apesar da intensa mobilização contrária, os acordos foram aprovados e as indenizações pagas. A questão incidiu ainda como ameaça ao poder do presidente Prudente de Moraes, considerando que eles funcionaram como bandeira de reivindicações nacionalistas, manifestadas em discursos parlamentares, lideradas pelo vicepresidente Manoel Vitorino, inimigo político do presidente, e seus seguidores jacobinos. Revelou ainda a repressão exercida sobre o incipiente movimento operário, na medida em que figurou entre os reclamantes italianos aqueles expulsos do Brasil por anarquismo.
Title in English
The Italian protocols (1892-1898)
Keywords in English
Diplomacy
Immigration
Italy
Nationalism
Republican Brazil
Abstract in English
The present thesis investigates diplomatic agreements made between Brazil and Italy to solve claims from Italian immigrants resident in Brazil, known as the Italian Protocols. These claims were organised and compiled by the Italian Consulate in São Paulo and sent to the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE), which instituted mixed committees to judge them and their respective indemnity payment to the claimants. Claims reported violence, property invasion and looting perpetrated against Italian immigrants by federal forces during the Federalist Revolution, and also unconcluded contracts between Italians and the public administration. However, the approval by the Members of the Parliament and the Federal Senate was necessary to make these agreements effective. Some of the representatives voted against these Protocols in several sessions, stating that they would offend the national honor. Thus, intense debates on this subject were held in the Parliament, in the Senate and also in press. The top of this issue were the fierce conflicts between Brazilians and Italians on the streets of São Paulo, motivated by the Italian Protocols. Despite intense opposing mobilization, agreements were approved and indemnities paid. This issue also ended up being a threat to the power of President Prudente de Moraes, once the Protocols resulted as an excuse for nationalist claims, expressed in representatives speeches, under the leadership of Vice-President Manoel Vitorino, political opponent of the President, and his Jacobin followers. It also revealed the repression on the incipient labor movement, which was found in claims by Italians expelled from Brazil under accusations of anarchism.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-09-06
 
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