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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2013.tde-24062013-132203
Document
Author
Full name
Monica Loyola Stival
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Moura, Carlos Alberto Ribeiro de (President)
Giacoia Junior, Oswaldo
Jaffro, Laurent
Pimenta, Pedro Paulo Garrido
Terra, Ricardo Ribeiro
Title in Portuguese
Foucault entre a crítica e o nominalismo
Keywords in Portuguese
Antropologia
Crítica
Foucault
História
Liberalismo
Moral
Nominalismo
Política
Sujeito
Abstract in Portuguese
Foucault analisa o liberalismo a fim de tornar inteligíveis as relações concretas de poder. Isso porque o liberalismo moderno põe em jogo um determinado regime de verdade, o que significa que seria possível, a partir dele, destacar o sentido que unifica esse período como época moderna. O procedimento adotado por Foucault consiste em delimitar condições de existência, fazendo a metodologia arqueológica prolongar-se na dimensão macrofísica do poder. Todavia, esse procedimento crítico de busca por condições impede a realização de uma história nominalista, única concepção de história que poderia atender aos pressupostos do projeto genealógico. Afinal, o nominalismo em história está em jogo desde que Foucault procura acentuar a contingência e singularidade de todo acontecimento, incluindo aí o nascimento do sujeito moderno. Mas não há conciliação possível entre o acento no método crítico e o acento no pressuposto da diferença, próprio ao nominalismo, o que leva Foucault a uma leitura incomum da modernidade e do sujeito. Essa leitura traz à tona duas consequências incômodas, pois nela toma corpo certo primado do discurso e a criação, como signo da atividade (política) do sujeito, parece não ter lugar. A fim de iluminar essa duplicidade inconciliável e suas consequências, procuro analisar como se define, em Foucault, o sujeito do liberalismo, o sujeito na história e, por fim, o sujeito moral, considerando especialmente seu trabalho posterior a 1976.
Title in English
Foucault between criticism and nominalism
Keywords in English
Anthropology
Criticism
Foucault
History
Liberalism
Moral
Nominalism
Politics
Subject
Abstract in English
Foucault examines liberalism in order to make intelligible the concrete relations of power. That is because the modern liberalism puts into play a certain regime of truth, which means that it would be possible to deprehend, out of it, the meaning which unifies this period as a modern era. The procedure adopted by Foucault consists in delimiting conditions of existence, causing the archeological methodology to extend into the macrophysical dimension of power. Nevertheless, this critical procedure of searching conditions prevents the accomplishment of a nominalistic history, the only conception of history which might comply with the assumptions of the genealogical project. After all, nominalism in history is at play since Foucault endeavours to emphasize the contingency and singularity of every occurrence, including the birth of the modern subject. But there is not a possible conciliation between the emphasis on the critical method and the emphasis on the assumption of difference, proper to nominalism, which leads Foucault to an uncommon reading of modernity and the subject. This reading reveals two disquieting consequences, because a certain primacy of the discourse arises from it, and creation, as a sign of the (political) activity of the subject, seems not to have room. In order to clarify this incompatible duplicity and its consequences, I try to analyse how it is defined, in Foucault, the subject of liberalism, the subject in history and, lastly, the moral subject, considering particularly his writings done after 1976.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-06-24
 
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