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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2006.tde-27092011-100247
Document
Author
Full name
Joana El-Jaick Andrade
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Musse, Ricardo (President)
Hirano, Sedi
Pessanha, Charles Freitas
Title in Portuguese
O revisionismo de Eduard Bernstein e a negação da dialética
Keywords in Portuguese
marxismo
partidos políticos
revisionismo
social-democracia
socialismo
Abstract in Portuguese
Nos fins do século XIX, Eduard Bernstein causou grande espanto e turbulência no interior da social-democracia alemã ao refutar publicamente as teses oficiais propugnadas pelos líderes do partido e, ao mesmo tempo, propor a revisão crítica do pensamento de Marx, desferindo sérios ataques ao que considerava seu elemento "nefasto": a dialética hegeliana. Ao defender a rejeição da filosofia da história marxiana - considerada obstáculo ao conhecimento científico da realidade social - Bernstein rompe com a perspectiva revolucionária, aderindo a um reformismo evolucionista. Acreditando no potencial emancipador da democracia burguesa, que tornaria possível a tomada do poder por meios legais e pacíficos, Bernstein passa a sustentar a adoção de uma postura política conciliatória e a mitigação da luta de classes. O surgimento desta corrente revisionista deu início a um grande cisma no interior da social-democracia que veio a ser considerado como "a primeira crise do marxismo", introduzindo uma nova tendência de rechaço à concepção dialética da história e de abdicação de quaisquer pretensões revolucionárias. Estas idéias viriam a tornar-se hegemônicas no final do século XX, quando as teses que apregoam o "fim da história" são amplamente difundidas e festejadas. Diante deste novo refluxo das teorias e práticas revolucionárias, torna-se fundamental a análise minuciosa do fenômeno revisionista - o contexto em que surge, as razões de seu sucesso no âmbito da esquerda e as críticas que podem lhe ser opostas
Title in English
The revisionism of Eduard Bernstein and the denial of the dialectic
Keywords in English
marxism
political parties
revisionism
social democracy
socialism
Abstract in English
In the end of the nineteenth century, Eduard Bernstein caused great turbulence in the German social democracy when he publicly opposed to the official theses of the leaders of the Social Democratic Party and, at the same time, recommended a critical revision of Marx's thought, making serious attacks on what he considered its most hideous element: the Hegelian dialectics. While supporting the total rejection of the Marxian philosophy of history - regarded as an obstacle to the scientific knowledge of the social reality - Bernstein breaks up with the revolutionary perspective, joining an evolutionary reformism. Relying in the emancipatory potential of the bourgeois democracy, that would make possible the achievement of power through legal and pacific means, Bernstein sustained a conciliatory political posture and the softening of the class struggle. The appearance of such revisionist tendency gave birth to a schism inside social democracy that was further known as "the first crisis of Marxism", as it excluded the dialectical conception of history and the revolutionary aim. These ideas became hegemonic at the end of the twentieth century, when theses proclaiming "the end of history" were widely spread. In face of the new reflux of the revolutionary praxis, the analysis of the revisionist phenomenon - the context in which it appears, the reason for its success and the critics opposed to it - becomes crucial
 
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Publishing Date
2011-09-27
 
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