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Doctoral Thesis
Document
Author
Full name
Aníbal Renan Martinot Chaim
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Lavalle, Adrian Gurza (President)
Arantes, Rogério Bastos
Hollanda, Bernardo Borges Buarque de
Limongi, Fernando de Magalhaes Papaterra
Lopes, Felipe Tavares Paes
Title in Portuguese
Futebol, corações e mentes: os torcedores na perspectiva do Estado
Keywords in Portuguese
Ciência Política
Estado
Futebol
Política
Torcidas organizadas
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente tese ambiciona apresentar o fenômeno das torcidas organizadas de futebol do Brasil (TOBR) sob a ótica do Estado brasileiro. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar não somente o protagonismo do Estado no processo que levou à fundação das primeiras TOBR nos anos 1940, mas também a influência de suas instituições para o crescimento e difusão das TOBR, que atingiram seu auge nos estádios de futebol nos anos 1990. Além de analisar a importância do Estado, esta tese também se dedica à compreensão das funções exercidas pela mídia esportiva, pelos clubes de futebol e pelos governing bodies do esporte brasileiro no que diz respeito à mediação da relação entre Estado e torcedores de futebol. Para a produção desse texto foram usadas fontes primárias como jornais de época, revistas de época, entrevistas, relatos e arquivos pessoais e também fontes secundárias como livros, dissertações, teses e artigos produzidos sobre as temáticas pertinentes a este estudo. Concluiu-se que as associações de torcedores no Brasil têm uma existência fortemente vinculada ao que se chamou de regime de Futebol de Estado, um arranjo político-institucional no qual o esporte de um país passa a ser usado como ferramenta política pelo Estado. O regime de Futebol de Estado é uma criação nazifascista que foi importada por Getúlio Vargas para o Brasil no início dos anos 1940. É durante este regime que se formam as primeiras associações de torcedores no Brasil. O expediente do Futebol de Estado foi também utilizado em toda a década de 1970 pelo Regime Militar, durante o qual as TOBR se desenvolveram de forma mais intensa. Foi também durante esse período que a violência entre torcedores se tornou mais frequente, o que contribuiu para que a relação entre Estado brasileiro e as TOBR entrasse em crise, uma consequência do fim do interesse estatal no esporte e da consolidação de um novo regime esportivo no Brasil nos anos 1990, o de Futebol para Mercado.
Title in English
Football, hearts and minds: the football-supporter on the States perspective
Keywords in English
Football
Football-supporters associations
Political Science
Politics
State
Abstract in English
This study aims to present the phenomenon of football-supporters' associations in Brazil (or TOBR, acronym in Portuguese language for torcidas organizadas de futebol brasileiras) on the historical perspective of the Brazilian State. It focuses not only on the State's role in the process that led to the foundation of the first TOBRs during the 1940's, but also on the influence of its institutions for the growth and diffusion of TOBRs, who experienced their golden age in football stadiums in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In addition to the analysis of the State's role within this process, this study is also dedicated to understand the role played by the sports media, the football clubs and the governing bodies of the Brazilian sport in mediating the relationship between the State and football supporters. This text was written upon primary sources such as coeval newspapers, magazines, periodicals, personal files, reports and non-coeval interviews, as well as secondary sources such as books, dissertations, theses and papers produced on the issues which are pertinent to this study. It was concluded that the TOBRs' existence in Brazil is strongly linked to what was called a setting of Football of State, which is a political-institutional arrangement in which the sport of a nation is used as a political tool by its State. The Football of State's setting is a Nazi-fascist creation that was brought to Brazil by Getúlio Vargas in the early 1940's. It was precisely during this regime that the first TOBRs were founded. The device of the Football of State was also used during the military regime throughout the 1970's, and it was under this rule that the TOBRs developed more intensely. It was also during this period that violence among supporters started to happen more frequently. The violence among football-supporters increased substantially during the 1980's and led to a crisis between the TOBRs and Brazilian State in the early 1990's, which was also triggered by the end of State's interest in sports and the consolidation of a new sports setting in Brazil during the 1990s, the Football for the Market.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-12-06
 
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