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Master's Dissertation
Document
Author
Full name
Gabriel Asa Corrêa Gruberger
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton (President)
Abreu, Cleide Aparecida
Novembre, Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho
Title in Portuguese
Enriquecimento de sementes de soja com cobalto e molibdênio
Keywords in Portuguese
Cobalto
Enriquecimento
Micronutrientes
Molibdênio
Sementes de soja
Abstract in Portuguese
A aplicação de cobalto (Co) e molibdênio (Mo) diretamente às sementes de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) é uma prática comum no cultivo dessa leguminosa no Brasil. Porém, esta técnica apresenta limitações, provocando fitotoxicidade na planta, interferindo na absorção de ferro (Fe) pelas raízes, diminuindo a população das bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio do gênero Bradyrhizobium nas sementes e aumentando uma etapa no pré-plantio. Uma maneira de contornar essas limitações seria a utilização de sementes enriquecidas com Co e Mo. Contudo, há carência de pesquisas com a finalidade de aumentar o teor de Co nas sementes de soja, haja vista que o potencial de enriquecimento com Mo já foi demonstrado. O objetivo do presente projeto foi determinar a viabilidade de enriquecimento de sementes de soja com Co e Mo e relacionar o enriquecimento ao potencial fisiológico das sementes. O projeto foi composto por dois experimentos. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, localizada no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), em Piracicaba (SP). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial (4x2)+1 e (4x2)+2, composto por 4 doses de Co, 2 variedades de soja, 2 formas de aplicação e o controle sem Co e Mo. Plantas de duas variedades de soja (uma de ciclo longo e outra precoce) foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 3 dm3 de amostra de solo arenoso. No estádio fenológico de desenvolvimento R5.4 (início do enchimento das sementes), aplicou-se, via solo e via folha, os seguintes tratamentos de Co + Mo (g ha-1): 0+800, 10+800, 20+800 e 30+800, além de um controle sem Co e Mo. O segundo experimento foi conduzido em campo, no Centro de Pesquisa Geraldo Schultz, em Iracemápolis (SP). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 6 repetições. As doses de Co + Mo e a variedade de soja utilizadas foram idênticas às do experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, no entanto, a aplicação em campo foi exclusivamente via foliar e a variedade utilizada foi a de ciclo longo. Foram avaliados os teores de Co e Mo no solo, folhas e sementes; os índices de clorofila (IC), de flavonóides (IF) e de balanço de nitrogênio (NBI); a germinação; e o vigor das sementes enriquecidas, utilizando o método de Envelhecimento Acelerado e a análise computadorizada de plântulas, com o auxílio do software SVIS® (Seed Vigor Imaging System). Foi verificada viabilidade no enriquecimento de sementes de soja com Co e Mo, sendo que a variedade mais precoce apresentou maiores teores de Co e Mo nas sementes. O enriquecimento das sementes com Co interferiu positivamente no vigor das sementes, obtendo-se melhor desempenho com a aplicação de 20 g ha-1 de Co. O enriquecimento com Mo, no entanto, não alterou o vigor das sementes. A aplicação foliar proporcionou maiores teores de Co nas sementes, em comparação à aplicação via solo. A aplicação via solo, porém, proporcionou maiores teores de Mo nas sementes em comparação à aplicação via foliar
Title in English
Soybean seed enrichment with cobalt and molybdenum
Keywords in English
Cobalt
Enrichment
Micronutrients
Molybdenum
Soybeans seeds
Abstract in English
The application of cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) directly to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds is a common practice in Brazil. However, this technique presents limitations, provoking phytotoxicity, interfering in the absorption of iron by roots, decreasing the population of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium in the seeds, and requiring an additional step in the pre-planting stage. One way to overcome these limitations would be to use seeds enriched with Co and Mo. However, there is a lack of research aimed at increasing Co content in soybean seeds, since the potential for enrichment with Mo has already been established. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of enriching soybean seeds with both Co and Mo and to relate the enrichment to increase in the physiological quality of the seeds. The project consists of two experiments. The first experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, located at the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA / USP), in Piracicaba (SP). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications, in a factorial scheme (4x2)+1 and (4x2)+2 of which 4 Co doses, 2 varieties, 2 application modes and the control without Co and Mo. Plants of two soybean varieties (one long and one precocious cycle) were grown in pots containing 3 dm3 of sandy soil. The following treatments of Co and Mo (g ha-1) were applied: 0 + 800, 10 + 800, 20 + 800, 30 + 800, via leaf and soil, after planting, at the R5.4 phenological stage of development. The second experiment was conducted in the field, at Geraldo Schultz research center, in Iracemápolis (SP), using only the long cycle genotype. The doses of Co + Mo used were identical to those of the greenhouse experiment; however, the application was exclusively via leaf. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 6 replications. Co and Mo content in soil, leaves and seeds as well as indices for chlorophyll (IC), flavonoids (IF), nitrogen balance (NBI), germination and vigor of enriched seeds were evaluated by means of Accelerated Aging and computer analysis of seedlings by means of SVIS® (Seed Vigor Imaging System) software. Enrichment of soybean seeds by means Co and Mo proved to be viable, with the earlier varieties having a higher Co and Mo content in the seeds. Seed vigor was positively influenced by Co enrichment; best results were obtained with application of 20 g ha-1 of Co. Enrichment with Mo, however, had no influence on seed vigor. Application via leaf resulted in higher levels of Co in seeds compared to application carried out via soil. On the other hand, application via soil resulted in higher levels of Mo in seeds in comparison to application carried out via leaf
 
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Publishing Date
2017-06-06
 
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