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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.6.2014.tde-03112014-114457
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Perides Akaishi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva (President)
Saldanha, Tatiana
Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues
Title in Portuguese
Validação de metodologias e determinação da composição de fitosteróis em cremes vegetais, farináceos e cafés comercializados em São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Café
Creme Vegetal
Farináceos
Fitosteróis
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução-- Os fitosteróis (FS) são esteróis de origem vegetal, reconhecidos como componentes funcionais devido ao seu papel hipocolesterolêmico. A recomendação de ingestão diária desses compostos é de 1,6 a 2 g/dia, no entanto há poucos estudos que avaliem os teores desses compostos em alimentos, sendo necessária sua quantificação. Objetivo - O objetivo deste projeto foi desenvolver uma metodologia e determinar os teores de FS em alguns alimentos usualmente consumidos e comercializados em São Paulo. Metodologia Foram avaliadas amostras de creme vegetal sem sal (in natura, e aquecidas a 100o C e 140o C), dos farináceos: farinha de trigo, farinha de milho, farinha de mandioca, amido de milho, café em pó (torras: tradicional, forte e extraforte, descafeinado e gourmet), café solúvel instantâneo, cappuccino e da bebida coada. As amostras, em triplicata, foram submetidas ao processo de saponificação a frio e a matéria insaponificável extraída foi derivatizada e posteriormente injetada em cromatógrafo gasoso. Resultados Os principais FS encontrados foram: -Sitosterol, campesterol e estigmasterol. As maiores médias de teores de FS foram encontradas nos cremes vegetais (186,2 ± 21,7 mg /100g) e nos pós de café moído (92,24 ± 3,95 mg /100g). As farinhas apresentaram teores intermediários, 42,27 ± 7,09 mg /100g; 35,10 ± 10,49 mg /100g; 22,02 ± 1,22 mg /100g; 14,33 ± 3,07 mg /100g para farinha de rosca, milho, trigo e mandioca, respectivamente. As amostras cappuccino (5,73 ± 0,78 mg /100g), café solúvel (4,03 ± 0,84 mg /100g) e amido de milho (3,55 ± 0,8 mg /100g) foram as apresentaram menores teores de FS. Nas amostras de creme vegetal, o processamento térmico reduziu os teores totais de FS das amostras in natura em 10 por cento e 53,7 por cento , para os aquecimentos até 100o C e 140o C, respectivamente. . Não houve influencia do grau de torra e do processo de descafeinização nos teores totais de FS encontrados nas amostras de pó de café moído. Conclusão: De acordo com os resultados obtidos os alimentos com maior teor de fitosteróis são a creme vegetal e o pó de café. Pode-se considerar que o creme vegetal, mesmo sem adição de FS é boa fonte desse nutriente. Nas amostras de café o processamento térmico pouco influenciou nos teores de FS, o mesmo não aconteceu com as amostras de creme vegetal. As mais baixas concentrações de FS foram observadas nas amostras de farinhas, amidos, cappuccino e café em pó solúvel.
Title in English
Validation of methodologies and determination of phytosterols composition in vegetable creams, farinaceous and coffees commercialized in Sao Paulo.
Keywords in English
Coffee
Farinaceous
Margarine
Phytosterols
Abstract in English
Introduction: Phytosterols (PS) are plant sterols, known as functional components due to its hypocholesterolemic role. The recommendation for daily intake of these compounds is 1.6-2 g/day, however there are few studies that evaluate the content of these compounds in foods, requiring its quantification. Objective: the objective of this project was to develop a methodology and determine the content of PS in some foods usually consumed and traded in Sao Paulo. Methodology: Were evaluated samples of: unsalted vegetable cream (in natura, and heated to 100oC and 140oC), farinaceous: wheat, corn and cassava flour, breadcrumbs and cornstarch, powdered coffee (roasts: traditional, strong and extra strong, decaffeinated and gourmet), instant coffee, cappuccino and strained drink coffee. Samples in triplicate were subjected to cold saponification process and unsaponificable matter was extracted, derivatized and subsequently injected into the gas chromatograph. Results: The main PS founded in the samples were: -sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. The highest average levels of PS were found in vegetable creams (186.2 ± 21.7 mg / 100g) and powdered coffee (92.24 ± 3.95 mg / 100g). Farinaceous had intermediate levels, 42.27 ± 7.09 mg / 100g; 35.10 ± 10.49 mg / 100g; 22.02 ± 1.22 mg / 100g; 14.33 ± 3.07 mg / 100g for breadcrumbs, corn, and wheat and cassava flour, respectively. Cappuccino samples (5.73 ± 0.78 mg / 100g), soluble coffee (4.03 ± 0.84 mg / 100g) and corn starch (3.55 ± 0.8 mg / 100g) showed lower levels of PS. In samples of vegetable cream, thermal processing reduced in 10 per cent and 53.7 per cent , for heating up to 100°C and 140°C, the total content of PS comparing with in natura samples. There was no influence of the degree of roasting and decaffeination process in the total levels of PS founded in samples of ground coffee powder. Conclusions: According to the results, in the samples evaluated, foods with the highest content of phytosterols are vegetable cream and powder coffee. Margarine can be considered good source of PS even without it industry addition. The heat treatment did not affected the PS content in the coffee samples, however, the same didn't happen with samples of vegetable cream. The lowest concentrations of PS were observed in samples of farinaceous, cappuccino and soluble coffee.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-12-14
 
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