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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.59.2015.tde-15052015-085904
Document
Author
Full name
Paula Zaghetto de Almeida
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes (President)
Paula, Ariela Veloso de
Silva, Tony Márcio da
Title in Portuguese
Diversidade do potencial amilolítico em fungos filamentosos: purificação e caracterização de uma glucoamilase de Aspergillus brasiliensis
Keywords in Portuguese
Amilase
Aspergillus brasiliensis
Enzimologia
Fungo filamentoso
Glucoamilase
Abstract in Portuguese
O Brasil apresenta cerca de 10 a 17,6% da biodiversidade mundial e apenas uma fração dela é conhecida. Os fungos filamentosos são bons produtores de enzimas e despertam um grande interesse biotecnológico. O amido é o principal carboidrato de reserva das plantas. Dentre as enzimas amilolíticas estão as glucoamilases, que catalisam a hidrólise das ligações -1,4 e -1,6 das extremidades da cadeia do amido liberando glucose. Neste trabalho foram isolados 25 fungos filamentosos de amostras de materiais em decomposição da Mata Atlântica. Dos micro-organismos com alta atividade amilolítica foram selecionados e identificados Aspergillus brasiliensis e Rhizopus oryzae. Foi realizada a otimização do cultivo e caracterização das amilases do extrato bruto de ambos os fungos. Após a obtenção destes dados foi selecionado A. brasiliensis, pois, sua amilase é mais termoestável e ainda não reportada na literatura. Após purificação a enzima foi identificada como glucoamilase, a qual é monomérica com 69 kDa e contém aproximadamente 21% de carboidratos. Apresenta um domínio de ligação ao amido na porção terminal e estrutura secundária rica em -hélice. Sua atividade ótima ocorre em pH 4,5 a 60°C, seu pI é de 3,21, pode ser ativada com a adição de Mn2+, e é inibida por glucose em concentrações maiores que 0,1 M. A glucoamilase apresenta excelente estabilidade ao pH e boa estabilidade a temperatura (a 50°C mantém 67% de atividade após 7 horas; a 55°C a meia vida é de 147 minutos). Com amido de batata a enzima apresentou as seguintes constantes cinéticas (km 2,21 mg/mL; Vmáx 155 U/mg; kcat 179 s-1; kcat/km 81,06). A glucoamilase foi imobilizada em DEAE-PEG com ativação de 12 vezes e possibilidade de reuso de 10 vezes com perda de apenas 31% de atividade. O derivado demostrou maior facilidade para hidrolisar a amilopectina do que à amilose. Também foi realizada uma análise de neighbor joining, que agrupou a glucoamilase de A. brasiliensis próxima às glucoamilases de espécies de Aspergillus, que são consideradas as mais derivadas.
Title in English
Diversity of amylolytic potential in filamentous fungi: purification and characterization of a glucoamylase from Aspergillus brasiliensis
Keywords in English
Amylase
Aspergillus brasiliensis
Enzymology
Filamentous fungi
Glucoamylase
Abstract in English
Brazil holds about 10-17.6% of the world's biodiversity and just a percentage of it is known. Filamentous fungi are enzyme producers that have great biotechnological application. Starch is the main reserve carbohydrate in plants. Among the amylolytic enzymes there are the glucoamylases, that catalyze the hydrolysis of -1,4 and -1,6 linkages of the end of starch chains, and releases glucose. In this research 25 filamentous fungi from Atlantic forest decaying material samples were isolated. Among microorganisms with high amylolytic activity Aspergillus brasiliensis and Rhizoupus oryzae were selected and identified. The cultivation parameters were optimized and the enzymes of crude extract were characterized. Considering the previous data Aspergillus brasiliensis was selected because its amylases are more thermostable and it has not been described in the literature yet. After purification the enzyme was identified as a glucoamylase, which is monomeric with 69 kDa and about 21% of carbohydrates in its composition. The enzyme has a starch binding domain in the terminal position and its secondary structure is rich in -helix. The optimum pH for glucoamylase activity is 4.5, the temperature is 60ºC and its pI is 3.21. The enzyme can be activated by the addition of Mn+2, and inhibited in concentrations above 0,1M glucose. The glucoamylase has an excellent pH stability and a good temperature stability (at 50ºC 67% of the activity was retained after 7 hours; at 55°C its half-life was 147 minutes). The best kinetic values were obtained with potato starch (km 2.21 mg/mL; Vmax 155 U/mg; kcat 179 s-1; kcat/km 81,06). The glucoamylase was immobilized on DEAE-PEG, with an activation of 12 times and enzyme reuse 10 times with just 31% loss of its activity. The immobilized enzyme has a greater activity on amylopectin than amylose. A neighbor joining analysis with glucoamylases from filamentous fungi species was made and Aspergillus brasiliensis glucoamylase was grouped close to the glucoamylases of Aspergillus species, which are considered the most derivative.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-07-15
 
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