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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2015.tde-12052015-091053
Document
Author
Full name
Michele de Cassia Santos Ramos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Fu, Carolina (President)
Tanaka, Clarice
Yamauchi, Liria Yuri
Title in Portuguese
Estudo comparativo de pacientes neurocirúrgicos submetidos à traqueostomia precoce e tardia durante o período na unidade de terapia intensiva em um hospital terciário
Keywords in Portuguese
Alta do paciente
Respiração artificial
Traqueostomia
Unidades de terapia intensiva
Abstract in Portuguese
Aproximadamente 24% dos pacientes graves na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) são submetidos à traqueostomia (TQT), e a diminuição do trabalho respiratório, o desmame ventilatório precoce e facilidade na higiene brônquica são os benefícios mais comuns neste procedimento, porém são descritos em pacientes heterogêneos. O período da TQT precoce permanece controverso, mesmo que este procedimento seja descrito há séculos, e entre os pacientes que frequentemente requerem ventilação mecânica prolongada (VMP) estão os neurocirúrgicos e são susceptíveis ao desenvolvimento de complicações sistêmicas e pulmonares. Além disso, há poucos estudos sobre os benefícios da TQT precoce em pacientes neurocirúrgicos com características homogêneas e esses são retrospectivos. Não há relatos sobre o custo indireto e o desfecho hospitalar desse pacientes, portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi analisar o tempo de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI), tempo de estadia na UTI em dias, tempo de estadia hospitalar em dias, custo indireto, ocorrência de complicações e o desfecho hospitalar em pacientes neurocirúrgicos submetidos à TQT precoce e tardia. Estudo prospectivo observacional, realizado no Instituto Central do hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre o período de Dezembro de 2009 a Junho de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes neurocirúrgicos admitidos na UTI, e submetidos à TQT após a intubação traqueal. Eles foram divididos em Grupo TQT Precoce (GTP): <= 7 dias de VMI e Grupo TQT Tardio (GTT): > 7 dias. Nível significativo adotado foi p<= 0,05. Foram incluídos 72 pacientes, 21 pacientes no GTP e 51 no GTT. A idade (GTP= 48, GTT= 51, p=0,101), gênero masculino (GTP= 16, GTT= 35, p=0,521), Apache II (GTP= 15, GTT= 15, p=0,700), Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GTP= 7, GTT= 7, p= 0,716) não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. O GTP apresentou menor tempo de VMI (p < 0,001), tempo de estadia na UTI (p=0,001), tempo estadia no hospital (p=0,001) e custo indireto (p =< 0,001). A infecção nosocomial (IN) foi a complicação identificada, a IN sistêmica (p=0,088), IN pulmonar (pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica (p=0,314), sobrevida (p=0,244) e o desfecho hospitalar mais comum (transferência para hospital de longa permanência) (p=0,320), não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os grupos. Em pacientes neurocirúrgicos, a TQT precoce reduziu o tempo de VMI, tempo de estadia na UTI, tempo de hospitalização e custo indireto. Porém não houve diferença na ocorrência de complicações e no desfecho hospitalar entre os grupos
Title in English
Comparative study of neurosurgical patients submitted early and late tracheostomy during the period in the intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital
Keywords in English
Intensive care units
Patient discharge
Respiration artificial
Tracheostomy
Abstract in English
Nearly 24% of the critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) are submitted to tracheostomy (TQT), and the decrease the work of breathing, early weaning and pulmonary toilet are the most common benefits in this procedure, however these benefits are described in heterogeneous patients. The period of early TQT remains controversial, even if this procedure is described for centuries, and between the patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are the neurosurgical and are susceptible to the development of systemic and pulmonary complications. In addition, there are few studies about the benefits of early TQT in neurosurgical patients with homogeneous characteristics and these are retrospective. There are no reports on the overhead and the hospital outcome of patients, therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), ICU length of stay (LOS) days, hospital LOS days, indirects costs, occurrence of the complications and patients discharge in neurosurgical submitted to early and late tracheostomy. Prospective, observational study, at the Central Institute of the Clinics Hospital, Medical School, University of São Paulo, from December 2009 until June 2011. Neurosurgical patients admitted at the ICU were included, and submitted to TQT after tracheal intubation were included. They were categorized in Early Tracheostomy Group (ETG) <= 7 days MV and Late Tracheostomy Group (LTG) > 7 days. Statistical analysis significance p < 0.05. 72 patients were included, 21 patients in ETG and 51 in LTG. Age (ETG= 48, LTG= 51, p=0.101), male (ETG 48, GTT= 51, p=0.521), Apache II (ETG= 15, LTG= 15, p=0.700), Glasgow coma scale (ETG= 7, LTG= 7, p= 0.716) no significant different between the groups. The ETG had shorter length of VM (p < 0.001), ICU LOS (p=0.001), hospital LOS (p=0.001) and indirects costs (p < 0.001). Nosocomial Infection (NI) was identificated complication, systemic NI (p=0.088), pulmonary NI (ventilator associated pneumonia- PAV) (p= 0.314), survival (p=0.244) and the most common hospital outcome (transfer to long-term care hospital) (p= 0.320), there were no significant difference between the groups. In neurosurgical patients, the early tracheostomy reduced length of MV, ICU LOS, hospital LOS and the indirects costs. However, there were no difference in the occurrence of complications and patient discharge between the groups
 
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Publishing Date
2015-05-12
 
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