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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2019.tde-15012019-090034
Document
Author
Full name
Larissa Candido Alves Tavares
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Issa, Victor Sarli (President)
Almeida, Dirceu Rodrigues de
Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes
Seelaender, Marilia Cerqueira Leite
Title in Portuguese
Desnutrição e caqueixa  em pacientes internados com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada: ocorrência e valor prognóstico
Keywords in Portuguese
Avaliação nutricional
Caquexia
Desnutrição
Insuficiência cardíaca
Transtornos nutricionais
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Distúrbios nutricionais são frequentes em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e associados a pior prognóstico. Entretanto, a grande variabilidade de critérios diagnósticos e a diversidade das populações estudadas tornam pouco reprodutíveis os resultados. São escassos os dados a respeito da ocorrência de distúrbios nutricionais em pacientes com IC no âmbito nacional. Objetivo: Estudar a ocorrência da desnutrição e caquexia em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada (ICD) e sua influência no prognóstico hospitalar. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma coorte prospectiva de pacientes com idade superior a 18 anos internados com descompensação de IC e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) inferior a 50%. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação nutricional que incluiu anamnese, avaliação nutricional subjetiva global (ASG), medidas antropométricas e foram diagnosticados quanto a presença de desnutrição, caquexia, baixo teor muscular e baixa força muscular. Dados bioquímicos, clínicos e de função ventricular foram obtidos por revisão do prontuário. Foram estudados os desfechos: alta hospitalar, óbito ou necessidade de transplante cardíaco em regime de urgência. Resultados: Foram analisados 131 pacientes, 64,9% eram do sexo masculino, a mediana de idade foi de 56 anos (IQ25-75: 45-64), 40,5% apresentavam cardiomiopatia dilatada, 32,1% doença de Chagas e 19,1% cardiomiopatia isquêmica. Os pacientes apresentaram mediana de FEVE de 25% (20-30) e de BNP de 1093pg/ml (591-2149). Quanto à avaliação nutricional a mediana de IMC foi de 23,3kg/m2 (20,6-26,7), 25,2% apresentaram baixo peso segundo o IMC, 41,2% baixo teor muscular, 49,6% baixa força muscular, 61,8% receberam diagnóstico de desnutrição e 48,1% de caquexia. Quanto ao desfecho hospitalar, 26% foram a óbito e 29% foram submetidos ao transplante cardíaco. A presença de distúrbios nutricionais esteve relacionada com algumas características clínicas, de forma que foi encontrado um pior perfil nutricional em indivíduos do sexo masculino, com doença de Chagas, adultos e que apresentavam maior severidade da IC. Os pacientes que tiveram os piores desfechos apresentavam menor FEVE, menor IMC, menos massa muscular, maiores níveis séricos de peptídeo natriurético tipo B e eram mais frequentemente desnutridos e caquéticos, porém na análise multivariada essa relação não se mostrou de forma independente. Conclusões: Nossos achados revelam que há uma alta ocorrência de desnutrição e caquexia entre pacientes internados com ICD em nosso meio, e que variáveis indicativas de pior status nutricional estão associadas com piores desfechos durante a internação
Title in English
Undernutrition and cachexia in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure: occurrence and prognostic value
Keywords in English
Cachexia
Heart failure
Nutritional assessment
Nutritional disorders
Undernutrition
Abstract in English
Introduction: Nutritional disorders are common among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with poor prognosis. However, the great variability of the diagnostic criteria and the diversity of the populations studied make results poorly reproducible. There are few data about nutritional disorders in patients with HF at the national level. Objective: To study the occurrence of undernutrition and cachexia in patients with decompensated HF and its influence on hospital prognosis. Methods: Prospective cohort study of adults and elderly patients hospitalized with decompensated HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 50%. The patients were submitted to nutritional evaluation including anamnesis, Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements and were diagnosed for the presence of undernutrition, cachexia, low muscle mass and low muscle strength. Biochemical, clinical and ventricular function data were obtained by reviewing the medical record. We studied the outcomes: hospital discharge, death or need for heart transplantation during hospitalization. Results: 131 patients were analyzed, 64.9% were male, the median age was 56 years (IQR: 45-64), 40.5% had dilated cardiomyopathy, 32.1% Chagas disease and 19.1% ischemic cardiomyopathy. Patients had a median LVEF of 25% (20-30) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) of 1093pg/ml (591-2149). Regarding nutritional assessment, the median Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.3 kg/m2 (20.6-26.7), 25.2% presented low body weight according to BMI, 41.2% low muscle mass, 49.6% low strength muscle, 61.8% were diagnosed as undernourished and 48.1% were cachectic. Regarding the hospital outcome, 26% died and 29% received cardiac transplantation. The presence of nutritional disorders was related to some clinical characteristics, in order that a worse nutritional profile was found in patients that was male, with Chagas' cardiomyopathy, adults and who presented a higher severity of HF. Patients who had the worst outcomes had lower LVEF, BMI, lower muscle mass, higher serum levels of BNP and were more often undernourished and cachectic, but in the multivariate analysis, this relationship was not shown independently. Conclusions: Our findings show that there is a high occurrence of undernutrition and cachexia among hospitalized patients with decompensated HF in our setting, and that variables indicative of poor nutritional status are associated with worse outcomes during hospitalization
 
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Publishing Date
2019-01-16
 
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