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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2012.tde-04042012-103028
Document
Author
Full name
Renata Carvalho de Miranda Chaves
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Rodriguez, Tomás Navarro (President)
Chinzon, Decio
Moretzsohn, Luciana Dias
Title in Portuguese
Influência do treinamento muscular respiratório no tônus do esfíncter inferior do esôfago em pacientes com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico
Keywords in Portuguese
Hipotonia do esfíncter inferior do esôfago
Refluxo gastroesofágico
Threshold IMT
Treinameno muscular inspiratório
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: Treinamento muscular inspiratório (TMI) tem se mostrado capaz de aumentar a espessura diafragmática. Sabe-se que o diafragma crural age como um esfincter externo do esfíncter inferior do esôfago (EIE), mas é desconhecido se pacientes com hipotonia do EIE se beneficiariam do TMI, a fim de aumentarem a pressão respiratória média (PRM), consequentemente havendo melhora dos sintomas de refluxo gastroesofágico. OBJETIVO: Determinar o resultado dos efeitos do TMI nas pressões respiratória média nos pacientes com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e seu efeito no tônus do esfíncter inferior do esôfago e compará-los com o grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes foram incluídos no grupo caso e nove no grupo controle. Todos pacientes tinham a pressão expiratória máxima (PEM) entre cinco e 10mmHg e foram submetidos à manometria esofágica e teste de função pulmonar antes e após oito semanas de treinamento utilizando o threshold IMT (Respironics, Cedar Grove, NJ) duas vezes ao dia. A medida da pressão inspiratória máxima (Pimax) foi aferida a cada duas semanas. O grupo caso teve o threshold IMT ajustado progressivamente, a cada quinze dias, sempre a 30% da nova Pimax. O grupo controle realizou o treinamento com o mesmo aparelho, sob uma pressão constante de 7cmH2O. O nível de significância estatística foi estabelecido a 5% (p £ 0,05). RESULTADOS: A média de idade do grupo caso foi 50,1 ± 18 e no grupo controle de 51,3± 11 anos. Após oito semanas de treinamento utilizando o threshold IMT houve uma melhora na PRM em 15 (75%) pacientes, representando um ganho médio de 46,6% (p<0,01), enquanto no grupo controle, seis (66%) pacientes obtiveram um aumento médio de 26,2% (p<0,01). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (p= 0,507). A PEM também aumentou quando comparada com a inicial (p<0,01), mas não diferiu entre os grupos (p= 0,727). Observou-se uma melhora na Pimax no grupo 1 (40% versus 19,6%). Houve um aumento na pressão expiratória máxima (Pemax) em ambos os grupos após as oito semanas de IMT (p< 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: O treinamento muscular inspiratório aumentou as pressões respiratória média e expiratória máxima ao longo das oito semanas em ambos os grupos. Não houve diferença com significância estatística entre os grupos sugerindo que o aumento na pressão do esfíncter inferior do esôfago ocorre independentemente da resistência aplicada ao threshold IMT. Mais estudos são necessários para determinar o impacto clínico desse aumento pressórico e confirmar ou afastar a manutenção dessas pressões a longo prazo
Title in English
Effects of respiratory muscle training on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease
Keywords in English
Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms
Hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter
Inspiratory muscle training
Threshold IMT
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to increase diaphragm thickness. It is known that the diaphragmatic crural fibers act as an external LES, but it is unknown if patients with hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) would benefit from IMT increasing the mid-respiratory pressure (MRP), and as such relieving gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. AIM: Evaluate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on MRP in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and hypotensive LES and compare it with the control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients (progressive loading group) and 9 controls (sham group) were included. All of them had end expiratory pressure (EEP) between 5 and 10mmHg and underwent esophageal manometry and pulmonary function tests before and after 8 weeks of training using a threshold IMT (Respironics, Cedar Grove, NJ) twice daily. The maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax) measurement was repeated each 2 weeks. The progressive loading group had their threshold IMT set at 30% of their new Pimax. Sham-treated patients (same device but minimal resistance to the air flow) had their threshold set at 7cmH2O and it was maintained constant during the period. The significance level was set at 5% (p £ 0.05). RESULTS: The mean age of progressive loading group was 50.1 ± 11.3 years and sham group was 51.3± 6.3. Following eight weeks of training using a threshold IMT there was an increase in MRP in 15 (75%) patients, representing an average gain of 46.6% (p<0.01), while in the sham group, six (66%) patients had their MRP raised with mean increase of 26.2% (p< 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups (p= 0.507). EEP also increased when compared with before measured (p<0.01), but did not differ between groups (p= 0.727). It has also been observed an improvement in the Pimax in progressive loading group (40% versus 19.6%). It was observed a gain in the maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax) as well in both groups after the 8-week program of IMT (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Inspiratory muscle training increased MRP and EEP in patients of active and sham-treated group after an 8-week program. There was no significant statistical difference between groups suggesting that the increase in pressure at LES occurs regardless to the resistance loading of threshold IMT. Extended follow-up is necessary to document the long-term benefits of such improvements
 
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Publishing Date
2012-04-11
 
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