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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2015.tde-24112015-082439
Document
Author
Full name
Chrystian Junqueira Alves
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Chadi, Gerson (President)
Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrao
Chadi, Debora Rejane Fior
Hipolide, Débora Cristina
Maximino, Jessica Ruivo
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização do papel da célula de Schwann no processo de neurodegeneração do neurônio motor na esclerose lateral amiotrófica no modelo animal transgênico e no nervo periférico de pacientes: estudo in vitro
Keywords in Portuguese
Células de Schwann
Degeneração retrógrada
Esclerose amiotrófica lateral
Neurônios motores
Técnicas de cultura de células
Abstract in Portuguese
A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) é uma doença neurodegenerativa progressiva de evolução rápida, caracterizada pela perda seletiva dos neurônios motores (NM) superiores e inferiores. Recentemente, as células gliais centrais (astrócito, microglia e oligodendrócito) mostraram-se tóxicas aos NM, porém os detalhes moleculares não estão completamente elucidados. Em relação às células gliais periféricas, alterações eletrofisiológicas no nervo ciático do modelo animal da ELA na idade pré-sintomática foram reportadas pelo nosso grupo e os achados de denervação precoce tanto no modelo animal quanto em pacientes sugerem a participação das células de Schwann (CS) na morte neuronal retrógrada na ELA, teoria conhecida como dying back. Nesse contexto, as CS mostraram-se capazes de induzir a retração axonal e a denervação das junções neuromusculares, eventos precoces na doença, ocorrendo possivelmente na fase présintomática. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência das CS do modelo experimental na fase pré-sintomática e do paciente com evolução recente da forma esporádica da ELA, na sobrevida e no tamanho dos prolongamentos dos NM in vitro e entender a natureza molecular do fenômeno. Culturas de CS altamente purificadas foram obtidas a partir do nervo ciático do camundongo modelo animal e do nervo periférico de pacientes com ELA. Os NM da medula espinal de camundongos neonatos foram co-cultivados com as CS. A neurodegeneração foi avaliada pela presença do marcador Fluoro-Jade C (FJC). Os NM também foram tratados com o meio condicionado das culturas de CS do modelo animal ou dos pacientes com ELA. Os motoneurônios tiveram os seus prolongamentos contados e a morte neuronal foi identificada pela presença do FJC. Diversos fatores neurotróficos foram quantificados no meio condicionado das culturas de CS pela técnica de ELISA. A reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa (do inglês, quantitative polymerase chain reaction - qPCR) foi realizada para detectar alterações nas CS e no nervo periférico que pudessem estar relacionadas com disfunção na unidade CS/NM. Os resultados mostraram que os NM cultivados na ausência das CS mostraram-se mais susceptíveis à morte. Os NM cocultivados com as CS ELA mostraram maior número de perfis neurodegenerativos em comparação com os NM co-cultivados com as CS controle. Após o tratamento com o meio condicionado das CS ELA, os NM mostraram redução no tamanho dos prolongamentos e aumento do número de células em neurodegeneração em comparação com o grupo controle. Quantidades reduzidas dos fatores neurotróficos foram encontradas no meio condicionado das culturas de CS ELA. Alterações na expressão gênica das CS e no nervo periférico evidenciaram disfunções na unidade CS/NM que podem estar contribuindo para o processo neurodegenerativo visto na ELA. Conclui-se que a falência nos mecanismos de neuroproteção pelas CS ELA é um importante mecanismo implicado na morte neuronal, com grande potencial terapêutico
Title in English
Characterization of Schwann cell role in the motor neuron neurodegeneration process in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the transgenic animal model and in the peripheral nerve of patients: in vitro study
Keywords in English
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Cell culture techniques
Motor neurons
Retrograde degeneration
Schwann cells
Abstract in English
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MN). Recently, central glia (astrocytes, microglias and olygodendrocytes) were toxic to the MN, but the molecular aspects have not fully described. In relation to the peripheral glia, electrophysiological changes in the sciatic nerve of ALS animal model in the presymptomatic stage have been reported by our group and early denervation findings in both animal models and patients suggests the participation of Schwann cells (SC) in the retrograde neuronal death of ALS , theory known as dying back. In this context, the SC proved to be able to induce axonal retraction and denervation of the neuromuscular junctions, early events in the disease, possibly occurring in the pre-symptomatic phase. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the influence of SC of pre-symptomatic experimental model and from patient with recent evolution of ALS sporadic form, in the survival and axonal length of MN in vitro and understand the molecular nature of the phenomenon. Highly purified SC cultures were obtained from the sciatic nerve of the animal model and from ALS patient's peripheral nerve. MN from the newborn mouse spinal cord were co-cultured with SC and the neurodegeneration was assessed by the presence of the marker Fluoro-Jade C (FJC). MN were also treated with conditioned medium from cultures of SC of the animal model or ALS patients. MN had their neuronal length measured and neuronal degeneration was identified by the presence of the FJC. Several neurotrophic factors were measured in conditioned medium of mice and ALS patient's SC cultures by ELISA. The chain reaction quantitative polymerase (qPCR) was performed to detect changes in the SC and peripheral nerve that could be related with dysfunction in the functional unit SC/MN. The MN co-cultured with ALS SC showed a greater number of neurodegenerative profiles compared with MN cocultured with control SC. After treatment with ALS SC conditioned medium, MN showed a reduction in the neuronal length and increased number of cells in neurodegeneration compared with the control group. Lower levels of neurotrophic factors were found in the conditioned medium of ALS SC cultures. Changes in the gene expression of SC and peripheral nerve showed dysfunctions in SC/MN unit, which may be contributing to the neurodegenerative process seen in ALS. In conclusion, the failure of neuroprotection by ALS SC is an important mechanism implicated in the MN cell death, with great therapeutic potential
 
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Publishing Date
2015-11-24
 
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