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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2014.tde-29102014-143321
Document
Author
Full name
Renata de Paula Assis Bombo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Lottenberg, Ana Maria Pita (President)
Alves, Renato Jorge
Cercato, Cintia
Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira
Rogero, Marcelo Macedo
Title in Portuguese
Ação dos fitoesteróis sobre lesão aterosclerótica em camundongos com ablação gênica do receptor de LDL
Keywords in Portuguese
Aterosclerose
Camundongos Knockout
Colesterol
Dieta
Fitoesteróis
Hipercolesterolemia
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Os fitoesteróis (FE) são reconhecidos por reduzirem a concentração plasmática de LDL-colesterol, sendo importantes coadjuvantes no tratamento da hipercolesterolemia moderada. Entretanto, estudos publicados recentemente demonstram resultados conflitantes em relação à eficiência dos FE na prevenção da aterosclerose. Além disso, algumas investigações evidenciaram que o aumento da concentração plasmática de FE está positivamente relacionado ao risco de desenvolvimento de aterosclerose. Com a finalidade de elucidar a sua ação sobre esses parâmetros, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de FE no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose em camundongos com ablação gênica para o receptor de LDL (LDLr-KO). Métodos: Os animais foram alimentados durante 16 semanas, com dieta rica em gordura (40% do valor calórico total da dieta), suplementada (grupo FE; 2%, n=10) ou não (Controle; n=10) com FE. Foram avaliadas as concentrações plasmáticas e hepáticas de colesterol, triglicérides, FE (beta-sitosterol, campesterol e latosterol). Na aorta dos animais, determinaram-se as concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol livre e éster e FE, além do infiltrado de macrófagos e infiltrado de lípides. Nos macrófagos do peritôneo dos animais, os quais assemelham-se aos presentes na artéria, avaliou-se a expressão de RNA mensageiro dos genes envolvidos no efluxo e influxo de colesterol (ABCA1, ABCG1, LOX1 e CD36). Também determinou-se as concentrações de FE no intestino e baço dos animais. Resultados: Conforme esperado, o consumo de FE induziu elevação plasmática dos principais FE, campesterol e de beta-sitosterol, reduzindo a concentração de colesterol no plasma. Houve aumento nas concentrações hepáticas de triglicérides e FE, entretanto, não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos nas expressões de RNA mensageiro de genes lipolíticos (CPT, PPAR alfa) e lipogênicos (SREBP1-c, MTP, LXR e PPAR gamma) no fígado. Não houve, também, alteração no SREBP2, gene relacionado à síntese de colesterol. O conteúdo de colesterol total na artéria foi menor nos animais do grupo FE, não diferindo entre as formas livre e éster. As concentrações de FE na artéria foram iguais entre os grupos. A área de lesão no grupo FE foi menor em relação ao grupo-controle. A suplementação com FE induziu redução na expressão de RNA mensageiro de ABCG1, não interferindo na expressão dos outros genes estudados na artéria. Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo demonstram que a elevação de FE no plasma não induziu o seu acúmulo na parede da artéria e preveniu o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose
Title in English
Phytosterols effects over atherosclerotic lesion in mice with ablation of the LDL receptor gene
Keywords in English
Atherosclerosis
Cholesterol
Diet
Hypercholesterolemia
Knockout mice
Phytosterols
Abstract in English
Introduction: The plasma cholesterol-reducing effect of hytosterols (PS) is well recognized and they are considered important adjuncts in the treatment of moderate hypercholesterolemia. However, recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the efficiency of PS in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In addition, some studies showed that the increase in plasma PS concentration is positively correlated to the risk of atherosclerosis. In order to elucidate its action on these parameters, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of PS supplementation in the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knock-out mice (LDLr -KO). Methods: The animals were fed during 16 weeks with high fat diet (40 % of calories as fat), supplemented (PS group, 2%, n = 10) or not (Control, n = 10) with PS. Plasma and liver concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, PS (beta - sitosterol, campesterol and lathosterol) were evaluated. In the aorta of the animals, the concentrations of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, cholesterol ester and PS, besides macrophage and lipids infiltration were determined. The mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol efflux and influx (ABCA1, ABCG1, LOX1 and CD36) were evaluated, in peritoneum macrophage, which resemble those present in the artery. It was also determined the intestine and spleen PS concentrations from the animals of both groups. Results: As expected, PS supplementation induced increasing plasma concentration of the main PS, campesterol and beta -sitosterol and reducing cholesterol plasma concentration. It was observed an increase so intestine and spleen PS concentrations. There was an increase in hepatic triglyceride concentrations and PS, however, no differences were observed between the groups of hepatic mRNA expression of lipolytic (CPT, PPARalfa) and lipogenic genes (SREBP1c, MTP, CPT, LXR, and PPAR gamma). There was no difference on SREBP2, gene related to cholesterol synthesis. The content of total cholesterol in the artery was lower in PS group animals however did not differ between the free and ester forms. Artery PS concentrations did not differ between groups. The lesion area in the PS group was lower than in the control group. PS supplementation induced reduction in mRNA expression of ABCG1, not affecting the expression of other genes studied in artery. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that the elevation of plasma PS concentration did not induce its accumulation in the arterial wall and prevented the development of atherosclerosis
 
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Publishing Date
2014-10-30
 
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