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Master's Dissertation
Document
Author
Full name
Paula Zaterka Giroldo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Pivello, Vania Regina (President)
Sato, Margarete Naomi
Silva, Danilo Muniz da
Title in Portuguese
Efeito da época de queima em um campo sujo de Cerrado
Keywords in Portuguese
Cerrado
Conservação
Manejo de fogo
Abstract in Portuguese
O fogo é um fator ecológico essencial no Cerrado e promotor de sua evolução. Não apenas a incidência do fogo afeta as respostas dos ecossistemas, mas principalmente o regime de queima, composto por componentes temporais, espaciais e de magnitude. O manejo por meio de queimadas controladas é legalmente permitido no Brasil, mas ainda é encarado com restrições. Como consequência, há uma lacuna no conhecimento das respostas da vegetação ao fogo. Este projeto avaliou o efeito da época do fogo na comunidade nativa de um campo sujo com presença de espécies invasoras na Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, SP. Estabelecemos 16 parcelas (15 x 15 m) e determinamos 3 tratamentos de queima - precoce, modal e tardia - e controle, cada qual com 4 réplicas. Em cada parcela, foram instaladas 10 sub-parcelas fixas (1 x 1 m), nas quais foram obtidos dados de estimativa de cobertura de graminóides, arbustos, herbáceas não graminóides, palmeiras, solo nu e necromassa. Os resultados mostram que diferentes épocas de queima geraram diferentes efeitos em gramíneas e solo nu, mas essas diferenças não se mantiveram um ano após as queimas. Constatamos a diminuição dos valores iniciais de cobertura de necromassa e o aumento na cobertura de arbustos para todos os tratamentos de queima. Não obtivemos resultados conclusivos para herbáceas não graminóides e vimos que a cobertura de palmeiras não foi afetada pelo fogo. Os resultados evidenciam a resiliência do Cerrado, já que o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo se regenerou dentro de 1 ano. A recuperação da vegetação pôde ser explicada pela sazonalidade climática, sendo que uma estação chuvosa foi suficiente para que as diferenças entre as épocas de queima desaparecessem. O manejo de fogo para redução de material combustível foi comprovado e vimos que pode ser realizado em qualquer época do ano. Obtivemos indícios de que a queima pode aumentar a susceptibilidade de invasão por Urochloa brizantha e indicamos que o manejo de fogo em ambientes invadidos por U. brizantha seja realizado com cautela, até que tenhamos certeza de que o fogo não facilita a proliferação dessa espécie invasora
Title in English
Effect of fire seasonality in a Brazilian savanna
Keywords in English
Cerrado
Conservation
Prescribed burning
Abstract in English
Fire is an essential ecological factor that has promoted the evolution of Cerrado vegetation. Not only the incidence of fire affects the ecosystem, but mainly the fire regime, which is characterized by variability in space, time, and magnitude. Time, specifically, is related to fire frequency and seasonality. The use of fire as a management tool is legally admitted in the Brazilian protected areas, but it is still seen with great restrictions. As a consequence there is a knowledge gap on the vegetation responses to fire. This project evaluated short time effects of fire season on the herbaceous community of a “campo sujo” (open savanna), in the Itirapina Ecological Station, a protected area in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We established 16 plots (15 x 15 m) and three fire treatments - burning in the early, middle or late dry season - and control (not burning), each treatment with four replicates. In each plot we established ten fixed subplots (1 x 1 m), where we estimated the vegetation cover of grasses, shrubs, forbs, palms, as well as bare soil and dead biomass, before burning and every four months during 12 months. We found that grasses and bare soil cover responded differently to the fire season, but differences among treatments disappeared after one year. Litter cover decreased and shrubs cover increased in every fire treatment after one year. Palms were not affected by any fire treatment, and we did not obtain conclusive results for forbs. Our results show that Cerrado vegetation is very resilient, since the components of the herbaceous community recovered within a year. The vegetation recovery was influenced by climate seasonality, and differences among fire seasons disappeared after just one rainy season. When considered as a management tool, fire was efficient in decreasing the amount of dead biomass after one year, and for this purpose it can be applied at any time of the year. Evidence suggested that fire might increase the invasion by Urochloa brizantha, an African grass. For this reason we suggest caution when using fire as a management tool in invaded ecosystems until one is sure that fire will not trigger or facilitate invasion processes by U. brizantha
 
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Release Date
2018-12-06
Publishing Date
2016-12-21
 
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