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Doctoral Thesis
Document
Author
Full name
Caroline Sayuri Fukushima
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Nogueira Neto, Paulo (President)
Bertani, Rogério
González, Abel Pérez
Miles, Fernando Pérez
Motta, Paulo Cesar
Title in Portuguese
Revisão taxonômica e análise cladística do gênero Avicularia Lamarck 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Araneae
Avicularia
Theraphosidae
Abstract in Portuguese
O gênero Avicularia Lamarck 1818 contém a espécie mais antiga de aranha migalomorfa descrita. Esse gênero, de histórico e taxonomia extremamente complexos, é aqui revisado, e uma análise cladística, utilizando 70 caracteres e 43 táxons terminais foi efetuada. O cladograma preferido, obtido com o programa Pee-Wee e concavidade 6, apresentou a subfamília Aviculariinae como grupo monofilético contendo os seguintes gêneros: Stromatopelma, Heteroscodra, Psalmopoeus, Tapinauchenius, Ephebopus, Pachistopelma, Iridopelma, Avicularia e Gênero 1, além de 4 novos gêneros, todos também monofiléticos. O gênero Avicularia apresenta como sinapomorfia presença de protuberância desenvolvida no tegulum e é constituído por 14 espécies: A. Avicularia (espécie-tipo), A. juruensis, A. purpurea, A. taunayi, A. variegata status novo, A. velutina, A. rufa, A. aymara,Avicularia sp. nov. 1, Avicularia sp. nov. 2, Avicularia sp. nov. 3, Avicularia sp. nov. 4, Avicularia sp. nov. 5 e Avicularia sp. nov. 6. As espécies se distribuem do Caribe ao Peru, Equador, Colômbia, Venezuela, Guiana, Guiana Francesa, Suriname e Brasil. São propostos 4 novos gêneros: Gênero novo 1, composto por 3 espécies: Gênero novo 1 hirschii comb. nov. (espécie-tipo), Gênero novo 1 minatrix comb. nov. e Gênero novo 1 sp. nov. 1. Gênero novo 2 e Gênero novo 3, monotípicos: Gênero novo 2 versicolor comb. nov. e Gênero novo 3 laeta comb. nov. Gênero novo 4 é composto 3 espécies: Gênero novo 4 sooretama comb. nov. (espécie-tipo), Gênero novo 4 diversipes comb. nov. e Gênero novo 4 gamba comb. nov.. São propostas as seguintes alterações taxonômicas: Catumiri parvum (Keyserling 1878) comb. nov., Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) comb. nov., Euathlus affinis (Nicolet 1849) comb. nov. As seguintes espécies são consideradas nomina dubia: Ischnocolus hirsutum (Ausserer 1875) nomen dubium, Ischnocolus alticeps Keyserling 1878 nomen dubium, Pterinopelma tigrinum Pocock 1903 nomen dubium, Mygale detrita Koch 1842 nomen dubium, Ischnocolus doleschalli (Ausserer 1871) nomen dubium, A. geroldi Tesmoingt 1999 nomen dubium, Avicularia holmbergi Thorell 1890 nomen dubium, Avicularia metallica Ausserer 1875 nomen dubium, Mygale ochraceae (Perty 1833) nomen dubium, Eurypelma rapax Ausserer 1875 nomen dubium, Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt 1996 nomen dubium, Mygale walckenaeri Perty 1833 nomen dubium, Avicularia exilis Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia fasciculata Strand 1907 nomem dubium, Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia soratae Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia subvulpina Strand 1906 nomen dubium, Avicularia surinamensis Strand 1907 nomen dubium. As seguintes espécies são consideradas species inquirendae: Avicuscodra arabica Strand 1908 species inquirenda, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão 1923 species inquirenda, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão 1930 species inquirenda, Avicularia glauca Simon 1891 species inquirenda, Avicularia gracilis(Keyserling 1891) species inquirenda, Mygale leporina Koch 1842 species inquirenda, Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão 1940 species inquirenda, Mygale plantaris Koch 1842 species inquirenda
Title in English
Taxonomical revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamark 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
Keywords in English
Araneae
Avicularia
Theraphosidae
Abstract in English
The genus Avicularia Lamarck 1818 contains the oldest mygalomorph species described. Its taxonomical history is very complex and for the first time it has been revised. A cladistic analysis with 70 characters and 43 taxa were done. The preferred cladogram was obtained using the computer program Pee Wee and concavity 6. The subfamily Aviculariinae contains the genus Stromatopelma, Heteroscodra, Psalmopoeus, Tapinauchenius, Ephebopus, Pachistopelma, Iridopelma, Avicularia, Genus 1 and Gen. nov. 1, Gen. nov. 2, Gen. nov. 3 and Gen. nov. 4. Aviculariinae is monophyletic, sharing the presence of spatulated scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, juveniles with a central longitudinal stripe connected with lateral stripes on dorsal abdomen and arboreal habit. The synapomorphy of Avicularia is the presence of a moderately developed protuberance on tegulum. The genus is constituted by 14 species: A. Avicularia (type species), A. juruensis, A. purpurea, A. taunayi, A. variegata status nov., A. velutina, A. rufa, A. aymara, Avicularia sp. nov. 1, Avicularia sp. nov. 2, Avicularia sp. nov. 3, Avicularia sp. nov. 4, Avicularia sp. nov. 5 e Avicularia sp. nov. 6. They are found from Caribbean island through Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and Brazil. Four new genera are proposed: Gen. nov. 1, with 3 species: Gen. nov. 1 hirschii comb. nov. (type species), Gen. nov. 1 minatrix comb. nov. e Gen. nov. 1 sp. nov. 1. Gen.nov. 2 and Gen. nov. 3 are monotypics: Gen. nov. 2 versicolor comb. nov. and Gen. nov. 3 laeta comb. nov. Gen. nov. 4 has 3 species, Gen. nov. 4 sooretama comb. nov. (type species), Gen. nov. 4 diversipes comb. nov. and Gen. nov. 4 gamba comb. nov. Other taxonomical changes are proposed: Catumiri parvum (Keyserling 1878) comb. nov., Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) comb. nov., Euathlus affinis (Nicolet 1849) comb. nov. The following species are considered as nomina dubia: Ischnocolus hirsutum (Ausserer 1875) nomen dubium, Ischnocolus alticeps Keyserling 1878 nomen dubium, Pterinopelma tigrinum Pocock 1903 nomen dubium, Mygale detrita Koch 1842 nomen dubium, Ischnocolus doleschalli (Ausserer 1871) nomen dubium, A. geroldi Tesmoingt 1999 nomen dubium, Avicularia holmbergi Thorell 1890 nomen dubium, Avicularia metallica Ausserer 1875 nomen dubium, Mygale ochraceae (Perty 1833) nomen dubium, Eurypelma rapax Ausserer 1875 nomen dubium, Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt 1996 nomen dubium, Mygale walckenaeri Perty 1833 nomen dubium, Avicularia exilis Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia fasciculata Strand 1907 nomem dubium, Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia soratae Strand 1907 nomen dubium, Avicularia subvulpina Strand 1906 nomen dubium, Avicularia surinamensis Strand 1907 nomen dubium. The folowing species were considered as species inquirendae: Avicuscodra arabica Strand 1908 species inquirenda, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão 1923 species inquirenda, Avicularia cuminami Mello- Leitão 1930 species inquirenda, Avicularia glauca Simon 1891 species inquirenda, Avicularia gracilis (Keyserling 1891) species inquirenda, Mygale leporina Koch 1842 species inquirenda, Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão 1940 species inquirenda, Mygale plantaris Koch 1842 species inquirenda.
 
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Release Date
2017-08-09
Publishing Date
2011-06-17
 
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