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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.3.2016.tde-06122016-142755
Document
Author
Full name
Bruno Martins de Camargo
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Piveli, Roque Passos (President)
Aisse, Miguel Mansur
Alem Sobrinho, Pedro
Title in Portuguese
Comportamento de reator UASB sem separador trifásico no tratamento de esgoto sanitário.
Keywords in Portuguese
Manta de lodo
Reator UASB
Reatores anaeróbios
Separador trifásico
Tratamento de esgotos sanitários
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a avaliação das características operacionais de um reator UASB sem o dispositivo de coleta de gás (separador trifásico) e sem o anteparo retentor de escuma posicionado próximo à canaleta de coleta do efluente. A motivação para esta pesquisa foi o interesse manifestado pelas companhias de saneamento em aplicar esta simplificação, que poderá implicar em economia na implantação dos reatores e praticamente na eliminação da necessidade de remoção de escuma. Utilizou-se um reator UASB com tais simplificações com volume útil de 24,5 m3 e estabeleceu-se uma estratégia operacional com aumento gradual da vazão de alimentação, compondo quatro fases de operação, com tempos de retenção hidráulica respectivamente de 16, 12, 10 e 8 horas. As vazões foram mantidas constantes em cada fase, com exceção da última, em que se impôs dois picos de vazão ao longo dia. O reator manteve-se operando com eficiências médias de remoção de DQO total, respectivamente, de 65,9%, 60,3%, 48,7% e 15,0%. De modo geral, pode-se afirmar que o reator piloto não apresentou o desempenho esperado, em termos de remoção de matéria orgânica, para TDH de 8 horas. Quanto ao perfil de sólidos no manto de lodo, nas duas primeiras etapas (TDH de 16 e 12 horas), o teor de sólidos daquele foi elevado, mas reduziu-se drasticamente a partir da etapa com TDH de 10 horas. Na última etapa, o comportamento da manta de lodo foi pouco previsível, observando-se progressivo arraste de sólidos do reator. Em função da grande perda de sólidos, acredita-se que o artifício empregado possa ser utilizado com melhor desempenho com a implantação de um decantador a jusante do reator ou mediante a aplicação de um pós-tratamento que garanta a recuperação dos sólidos perdidos (por exemplo, lodos ativados). Outra alternativa é a própria substituição do UASB pelo decantador primário antes de um pós-tratamento aeróbio.
Title in English
Behavior of UASB reactor without three-phase separator in the sewage treatment.
Keywords in English
Anaerobic digestion
Sewage treatment
Sludge blanket
Three phase separator
UASB reactor
Abstract in English
The objective of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics of a UASB reactor without the gas collection device (three phase separator) and without the scum retainer screen positioned near the effluent collection channel. The motivation for this research was the interest shown by sanitation companies to apply this simplification, which can result in savings in the implementation of the reactors and practically in eliminating the need of scum removal. An UASB reactor was used with such simplifications with a volume of 24.5 m3 and an operational strategy was established with gradual increase of the feed flow, consisting of four operating phases, with hydraulic retention times, respectively, of 16, 12, 10 and 8 hours. The flows were kept constants at each operating phase, except the last, which was imposed two peak flows throughout the day. The reactor was kept operating with efficiency of COD removal, respectively, of 65.9%, 60.3%, 48.7% and 15,0%. Generally, the pilot reactor had not the expected performance in removal of organic matter, with hydraulic retention time of 8 hours. In the first two fases (HDT of 16 and 12 hours), solid's content in sludge blanket was high, but had reduced significantly from the second fase, with 10 hours of HDT. In the last fase, the sludge blanket behavior was bit predictable, with progressive drag of solids from reactor. Because of high solids loss, it is believed that the applied device can be used with better performance with the implantation of a settler after the reactor or a post-treatment that ensures the lost solids recovery (for example, activated sludge). Another alternative is the replacement of UASB by the primary clarifier before aerobic post-treatment.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-12-06
 
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