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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2003.tde-09032004-084518
Document
Author
Full name
Idevânia Geraldina Costa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2003
Supervisor
Committee
Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher (President)
Cassiani, Silvia Helena de Bortoli
Santos, Vera Lucia Conceicao de Gouveia
Title in Portuguese
"Incidência de úlcera de pressão e fatores de risco relacionados em pacientes de um Centro de Terapia Intensiva"
Keywords in Portuguese
fatores de risco
pesquisa em enfermagem clínica
úlcera de decúbito
unidades de terapia intensiva
Abstract in Portuguese
A pesquisa tem como objetivos identificar e analisar a incidência de úlcera de pressão (UP), identificar os fatores de risco a ela relacionados e investigar a validade preditiva da escala de Braden, numa amostra de 53 pacientes internados no Centro de Terapia Intensiva (CTI) de um hospital universitário do interior paulista, durante 3 meses consecutivos. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Intituição. Os dados foram coletados pelo exame físico dos pacientes, na avaliação do risco na escala de Braden, entrevistas com os pacientes e/ou familiares e revisão dos prontuário. As avaliações foram realizadas até 24 horas após a admissão, 48 horas após a admissão e, posteriormente, em dias alternados até à detecção da presença de úlcera, de alta ou óbito do paciente. Vinte pacientes desenvolveram 59 úlceras no período, acarretando uma incidência de 37%. As localizações mais comuns foram a região dos calcâneos (42,4%), sacrococcígea (30,5%) e glúteos (11,8%). Houve predomínio de úlceras no estágio I (59,3%) não sendo observadas úlceras em estágio IV. Nas seis primeiras avaliações os pacientes com úlcera de pressão obtiveram escores menores na escala de Braden que os sem Up, com diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos. Os escores das subescalas percepção sensorial, atividade, mobilidade, fricção e cisalhamento foram na maioria das avaliações menores para os pacientes com UP com diferença estatisticamente significantes, o que não ocorreu nas sub-escalas umidade e nutrição. Dentre outros fatores investigados, a respiração controlada por aparelho e saída por alta e óbito apresentaram relacionamento com presença de úlcera de pressão. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o tempo de internação hospitalar e no CTI, entre os grupos, sendo esses superiores para os pacientes com UP. Os resultados dos testes para investigar a validade preditiva da escala de Braden apontaram que, na primeira avaliação, o escore 14 obteve elevada sensibilidade e validade preditiva para teste negativo, porém, a especificidade e validade preditiva para teste positivo foram inferiores. Na segunda e terceira avaliação, a escala demonstrou um melhor desempenho nos testes de validação para os escores 13 e 12, respectivamente.
Title in English
Incidence of pressure ulcer and risk factors in patients of an Intensive Care Center.
Keywords in English
decubitus ulcer
intensive care units
research in clinical nursing
risk factors
Abstract in English
The research had as objectives to identify and analyze pressure ulcer incidence, to identify related risk factors and investigating the predictive validity of the Braden scale in a sample of 53 patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Center (ICC) of an university hospital during 3 months. The study was approved by the institution Ethical Research Committee. Data were collected by physical examination, by the application of the Braden scale, patient and family member interviews and by review of patient records. Evaluation were done within 24 hours of admission at the ICC, 48 hours after that and subsequently every other day until the observation of pressure ulcer development, hospital discharge or death of patient. Twenty patients developed 59 pressure ulcers, an index of incidence of 37.7%. The ulcers were located predominantly on heels (42.4%), sacral and coccyx region (30.5%) (30.5%) and buttocks (11.8%). Most of ulcers were on stage I (59.3%) and there was no ulcer on stage IV. On the six first evaluations, patients with pressure ulcers had lower scores in Braden scale than patients without pressure ulcers with significant statistical differences between groups. Scores of sub-scales of sensory perception, activity, mobility, friction and shear were in most of evaluation lower to patients with pressure ulcer with significant statistical differences between groups what did not occur to the sub-scales moisture and nutrition. Among other factors that were investigated, use of mechanical respiration and leaving the ICC because of hospital discharge or death were related to having a pressure ulcer. There were significant differences related to length of hospitalization and length of permanence on ICC between groups when for patients with pressure ulcer both were longer. The results of the tests to investigate the predictive validity of the Braden scale showed that on the first evaluation the score 14 was a score that had a high sensitivity and predictive validity for a negative test however the specificity and predictive validity for a positive test were lower. On the second and third evaluation the scale showed a better performance on predictive validity tests for the 13 and 12 scores respectively.
 
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Publishing Date
2004-03-15
 
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