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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2019.tde-06112018-164333
Document
Author
Full name
Natália Máximo Fonseca
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Pace, Ana Emilia (President)
Rossi, Vilma Elenice Contatto
Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes Villas
Zanetti, Maria Lucia
Title in Portuguese
Intervenções educativas para o autocuidado dos pés de pacientes com diabetes mellitus: estudo quase experimental
Keywords in Portuguese
Autocuidado
Autoeficácia
Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2
Educação em Saúde
Pé diabético
Abstract in Portuguese
Este é um estudo quase-experimental, cujo objetivo foi avaliar as contribuições de uma intervenção educativa, focada no autocuidado com os pés, para as pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, desenvolvida em unidade ambulatorial de um hospital de nível terciário do interior paulista em amostra de 27 pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. A intervenção educativa teve duração de 12 meses, estruturada em quatro encontros, dos quais dois foram individuais e utilizados para realizar a coleta de dados, nos dois tempos do estudo, que ocorreram antes e após o programa educativo, respectivamente, e dois na modalidade grupal, nos quais foram desenvolvidas as intervenções educativas por meio de ferramentas visuais e interativas, denominada Mapa de Conversação em Diabetes, cujas intervenções foram fundamentadas na Teoria Social Cognitiva que tem como conceito chave a Auto Eficácia. A amostra foi caracterizada pelas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, antropométricas, tratamento e hábitos de vida. As variáveis de interesse foram: avaliação física dos pés e calçados, o comportamento planejado em relação ao cuidado com os pés, a autoeficácia e a hemoglobina glicada. Os dados de caracterização da amostra foram apresentados por meio da estatística descritiva e as análises entre os tempos antes e após a intervenção educativa foi realizado através do teste Mann-Whitney para os instrumentos de Comportamento Planejado e Autoeficácia, já para efetuar a correlação entre os domínios da Autoeficácia, foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e para avaliar as questões relacionadas à avaliação dos pés utilizou-se o teste Exato de McNemar. O nível de significância adotado em todas as análises foi de 5% (? = 0.05). Na caracterização da amostra houve predomínio do sexo feminino 20(62,5%), 61,12 (DP=8,94) anos de idade, tempo médio de diagnóstico 19,25 (DP=10,50) anos. As características físicas dos pés da amostra estudada apresentaram melhora em quase todas as variáveis avaliadas com o valor de p? 0,05, exceto para a questão sobre "presença de descamações" e "lesões interdigitais" cujo valor de p foi >0,05 para ambos. No item cuidado com os pés do comportamento planejado, o domínio cujo escore aumentou após as intervenções foi o relacionado ao "planejamento do coping" (p>0,05). Para este último resultado atribui-se uma relevância clínica ao considerar uma variável cuja natureza se insere na esfera psicológica. Para a autoeficácia, a média total da escala aumentou após o programa educativo, de 2,17 (DP=0,65) para 2,28 (DP=0,46) (p<0,05), com destaque ao domínio que inclui cuidados com os pés. A hemoglobina glicada apresentou diminuição de 0,544% no valor médio entre os dois tempos do estudo, de 8,434% para 7,890% (p>0,05). Os resultados do presente estudo contribuíram com a melhora dos cuidados com os pés das pessoas com diabetes mellitus
Title in English
Educational interventions for self-care of the feet of patients with diabetes mellitus: a quasi-experimental study
Keywords in English
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetic foot
Health education
Self-care
Self-efficacy
Abstract in English
This is almost an experimental study with the objective of assessing the contributions of an educative intervention, focused on the self-care of the feet of people with diabetes mellitus type 2. It was developed in the ambulatory of a thirdsector hospital, in the countryside of State of São Paulo, sampling 27 people with diabetes mellitus type 2. The educative intervention had the duration of 12 months. Its was structured with four meetings, in which two were individual and used to perform data collection, on both periods of the study, that occurred before and after the educative program, respectively. Two meetings were in group, in which the educative interventions were performed, using audiovisual, interactive aids named Diabetes Conversation Map [Mapa de Conversação em Diabetes], focusing on the concept of self-efficacy Social Cognitive Theory. The sample was characterized by the sociodemographic, clinic and anthropometric variables, and also treatment and lifestyle. In the interest analysis, were included the variables of physical evaluation of the feet and shoes, the planned behavior regarding the feet care, the self-efficacy and the impact on the glycated hemoglobin. The sample data characterization was presented using the descriptive statistic and the analysis of the situation before and after the educative intervention was performed through the Mann-Whitney test, for the tools of planned behavior and self-efficacy. To perform the correlation between the domains of self-efficacy, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used and to asses the feet evaluation, the McNemar's test. The significance level adpted in all analysis was 5% (? = 0.05). Th the sample characterization there was the predominance of the female sex 20 (62,5%), and elder adults with the average of 61,12 (DP = 8,94) years old, average diagnostic time 19,25 (DP = 10,50) years. The physical characteristics of the feet in the studied sample presented improvement in almost every variable assessed with the value of p<0,05, except for the topics "peeling" and "interdigital injuries", with the value of p>0,05 for both. As for the tool "planned behavior", regarding the feet care, the domain that presented increase was "coping plan" in T4, however with the value of p>0,05. For the last, the result was due to a clinic relevance when considering a psychologicrelated variable. For the self-efficacy, the total average of the scale increased after the educative program, in T1 the average was 2,17 (DP=0,65) and T4 2,28 (DP=0,46), p<0,05. The educative program contributed positively to the variables of feet care, as observed in the results in domain 2 "general nutrition and drug treatment", that included one item of feet care. As for the glycated hemoglobin, the present study presented decrease of the average value between the two periods of study, 8.434% in T1 and 7.890% in T4, which means a decrease of 0.544% with the value of p>0.05. It is possible to state that the results showed positive contributions for people in the performance of feet self-care
 
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Publishing Date
2019-01-14
 
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