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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.2.2011.tde-18042012-154810
Document
Author
Full name
Geraldo Henrique de Souza Armond
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Beltran, Ari Possidonio (President)
Camargos, Ana Amelia Mascarenhas
Silva, Homero Batista Mateus da
Title in Portuguese
A responsabilidade objetiva do empregador no acidente do trabalho
Keywords in Portuguese
Acidentes de trabalho
Empregador
Responsabilidade civil
Responsabilidade contratual
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente estudo aborda o acidente do trabalho e sua reparação pelo direito comum em face dos dois principais sistemas que fundamentam a responsabilização civil do empregador por acidentes do trabalho - subjetivo e objetivo -, principalmente após a entrada em vigor do novel Código Civil brasileiro, o qual, a despeito de ter mantido como regra geral, no caput do seu artigo 927, a responsabilidade subjetiva, estabeleceu, no parágrafo único desse mesmo dispositivo, concomitantemente, regime especial de responsabilidade objetiva nas hipóteses especificadas em lei ou na hipótese de a atividade normalmente desenvolvida pelo autor do dano implicar, por sua natureza, risco para os direitos de outrem. Se há a compreensão imediata da primeira parte do parágrafo único do artigo em comento, na segunda, as hipóteses de risco são dadas sob a forma de cláusula geral, cabendo ao intérprete a tarefa de preencher a lacuna legal. Essa é uma tarefa que deve ser executada à luz da Constituição Federal brasileira, que prevê, em seu artigo 7º, inciso XXVIII, a responsabilidade do empregador por culpa ou dolo. Assim, na questão acidente do trabalho, a presente tese demonstra que a teoria do risco tem avançado cada vez mais sobre o terreno da responsabilidade subjetiva, sem, contudo, ter transformado a responsabilidade objetiva em regra geral incidente a partir de simples avaliação circunstancial de um dano verificado na relação de trabalho. Concluiu-se que as atividades que justifiquem a aplicação de uma responsabilidade especial dependem, na análise do caso concreto, antes da apreciação do mérito, de uma decisão judicial de natureza declaratória nesse sentido, representando valioso instrumento para a reparação dos danos ocorridos em atividades de risco não capituladas em lei.
Title in English
The employers objective liability in the labor-related accident
Keywords in English
Civil liability due to occupational risk
Employers liability
Labor-related accident
Objective civil liability
Subjective civil liability
Abstract in English
The present study is concerned with labor-related accidents and their reparations through the normal course of law, taking into consideration the two main systems on which the employers civil liability is based - subjective and objective -, especially after the new Brazilian Civil Code came into force, which, in spite of the general rule of subjective liability being upheld in the caput of article 937, established in the single paragraph of this same article a special regimen of objective liability on the basis of hypotheses specified in law or on the hypothesis that the activity normally undertaken by the author of damages incurred implies by its very nature in risk to the rights of others. If the first part of the single paragraph of the article under discussion may be immediately comprehended, in the second part, the hypotheses are presented as a general rule, thus leaving the task of filling this legal interpretation gap in the hands of the person making the interpretation. This is a task which should be undertaken in the light of the Brazilian Federal Constitution, which, in article 7th subparagraph XXVIII, recognizes the liability of the employer by blame or intention. Thus with regard to labor-related accidents, the present thesis demonstrates that the theory of risk has increasingly advanced into the territory of subjective liability, without however turning objective liability into a general prevailing rule when undertaking circumstantial assessment of damages incurred as a result of work. It is concluded that activities which justify the application of special liability depend, where a concrete case is analyzed and before final judgment is passed, on a judicial declaration for this, and this represents a valuable instrument for reparation of damages incurred in activities of risk not covered by the law.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-04-27
 
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