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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.17.2017.tde-21072016-110802
Document
Author
Full name
Lucas Benício Campos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Coutinho Netto, Joaquim (President)
Barbosa, Jose Elpidio
Ho, Paulo Lee
Title in Portuguese
Atividade tóxica da peçonha de Lachesis muta rhombeata e produção de fragmentos de anticorpos humanos (scFv) contra a peçonha bruta
Keywords in Portuguese
Fosfolipase A2
L-aminoácido oxidase
Lachesis muta rhombeata
Phage Display
Protease
scFv
Abstract in Portuguese
O tratamento atual indicado para casos de envenenamentos por peçonhas é a administração intravenosa de antivenenos, produzidos através da hiperimunização de animais. Entretanto, os antivenenos disponíveis podem, algumas vezes, não proteger os pacientes e causar reações de hipersensibilidade. Fosfolipases A2 (PLA2), L-aminoácido oxidases (LAAO), metalo e serinoproteases são os principais componentes de peçonhas ofídicas e contribuem para a neurotoxicidade, hemorragia, hemólise, miotoxicidade, cardiotoxicidade e formação de edemas. Foram empregados ensaios para avaliar as atividades das enzimas presentes na peçonha de serpentes da espécie Lachesis muta rhombeata e aquele para atividade de protease foi otimizado. A tecnologia de Phage display foi empregada para a seleção de fagos-anticorpos capazes de reconhecer a peçonha bruta. Os fagos foram amplificados em Escherichia coli TG1 e usados para infectar E. coli HB2151, a qual produz fragmentos de anticorpos humanos solúveis. Estes foram purificados e utilizados em testes de inibição de alguns dos componentes tóxicos da peçonha. Os testes de atividade para PLA2, protease e Laminoácido oxidase foram padronizados com sucesso e as 3 proteínas mostraram elevada atividade enzimática. Após otimização, a quantidade de peçonha necessária para o ensaio de protease foi reduzida em 25 vezes. A massa molecular de PLA2 foi estimada em 17 kDa e as massas moleculares de proteases foram estimadas em 40, 35 e 24 kDa, através de zimogramas. O método de bio panning foi eficiente para a seleção de fagos-anticorpos contra a peçonha bruta. Diversos fragmentos de anticorpos foram purificados e incubados com a peçonha bruta para testar suas capacidades de neutralização sobre cada enzima. Cinco clones demonstraram-se hábeis em inibir a PLA2 através da inibição da hemólise. O clone 4E inibiu 100% da hemólise durante as duas horas de ensaio quando pré-incubado na proporção 2:1 (scFv:peçonha). Os clones 2C e 4E inibiram 100% durante uma hora quando pré-incubados na proporção 1:1 e os clones 2F e 9F inibiram a hemólise parcialmente. Outros testes serão conduzidos para a seleção de clones capazes de neutralizar as demais enzimas, os quais, juntamente com os clones já selecionados, serão analisados através de ensaios in vivo. Espera-se que eles possam contribuir para a construção de um novo antiveneno capaz de superar algumas das dificuldades associadas às técnicas de imunoterapia convencionais
Title in English
Toxic activity of Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and production of human antibody fragments (scFv) against the crude venom
Keywords in English
L-amino acid oxidase
Lachesis muta rhombeata
Phage Display
Phospholipase A2
Protease
scFv
Abstract in English
The current treatment for animal envenoming is the intravenous administration of antivenoms, produced by animal hyperimmunization. Unfortunately, available antivenoms sometimes do not protect patients and may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2), L-amino acid oxidases, metallo and serine proteases are considered the most important snake venom components and contribute to neurotoxicity, hemorrhage, hemolysis, myotoxicity, edematogeny and cardiotoxicity. Assays for evaluating the enzymes present in Lachesis muta rhombeata venom were developed and the protease one was optimized. Phage display technology was used to select phage antibodies able to recognize the crude venom. Phages were amplified in Escherichia coli TG1 and used to infect E. coli HB2151, which produces human antibody fragments. Inhibition tests aiming the neutralization of some toxic components of the venom were performed using purified antibody fragments. Activity assays for evaluating PLA2, protease and L-aminoacid oxidase were successfully performed and all enzymes showed high activity levels. The molecular mass of PLA2 was estimated in 17 kDa and the molecular mass of proteases were estimated in 40, 35 and 24 kDa, by zymography. After optimizing the conditions for proteolytic assay, it was possible to use 25 times less venom than it was necessary at first. The bio panning method was efficient for selecting specific phage antibodies against the crude venom. Several clones were selected to infect HB2151 and to produce soluble antibody fragments, which were purified and incubated with the venom to test their inhibition capacity over each enzyme. Five clones demonstrated ability to neutralize PLA2 by inhibiting hemolysis. The clone 4E could inhibit 100% of hemolysis for over 2 hours when preincubated at the ratio 2:1 (scFv:venom). Clones 2C and 4E could inhibit 100% for 1 hour when preincubated at the ratio 1:1 and clones 2F e 9F could inhibit partially. Other tests will be performed to select clones able to neutralize other enzymes and, together with the clones already selected, will be evaluated by in vivo experiments. It is expected that they may contribute to the construction of a potential new antivenom able to overcome some of the problems associated with conventional immunotherapy
 
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Publishing Date
2017-03-28
 
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