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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.16.2010.tde-27042010-091114
Document
Author
Full name
Marianna Ramos Boghosian Al Assal
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Lanna, Ana Lucia Duarte (President)
Capelato, Maria Helena Rolim
Pinheiro, Maria Lucia Bressan
Title in Portuguese
Arquitetura, identidade nacional e projetos políticos na ditadura varguista : as escolas práticas de agricultura do Estado de São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Arquitetura
Arquitetura neocolonial
Escola rural
Estado Novo
Fernando Costa
Identidade nacional
Abstract in Portuguese
Entre 1937 e 1945 o Brasil esteve sob o governo ditatorial do Estado Novo, cuja ideologia de progresso e engrandecimento nacional aparece fortemente caracterizada pelos paradigmas do nacionalismo, a defesa da soberania nacional, a modernização das instituições, a industrialização dos processos de produção, e, principalmente, pela crença no Estado como mediador das tensões. Neste processo, marcado pela transformação do imaginário coletivo num instrumento regulador do cotidiano, a construção de uma identidade nacional unificadora, capaz de acomodar as diferenças, tornou-se um mecanismo central de poder. Além disso, pode-se dizer que, neste mesmo período, culminou o longo processo de construção de um campo profissional autônomo para a arquitetura - especialmente no que diz respeito a seu aspecto erudito -, que havia ocupado as décadas anteriores envolvendo procedimentos e estratégias diversas não só no campo da educação, mas também no que diz respeito à consolidação de uma linguagem plástica reconhecida, à construção de obras emblemáticas e ao poder de elaborar sua própria história. Neste contexto, arquitetura e Estado estabeleceram, especialmente durante estes anos de governo ditatorial, uma relação bastante particular. O objetivo da presente dissertação, portanto, é abordar algumas destas questões, a partir de um episódio específico: a construção das Escolas Práticas de Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo, erigidas pelo Interventor Fernando Costa, entre 1942 e 1945. Propôs-se para tanto investigar os processos de idealização, concepção do projeto e implantação das referidas escolas, procurando identificar, a partir de sua arquitetura, o entrecruzamento de projetos políticos diversos. Destaca-se particularmente nesse cenário a adoção da arquitetura neocolonial como aspecto central do projeto de implantação das referidas escolas - executado no âmbito de órgãos públicos estaduais -, e o discurso ideológico que assume para tanto, onde os elementos constituintes de sua linguagem formal ganharam importância ao assumirem uma carga simbólica que se referenciava e propunha novas construções para o imaginário coletivo; e onde tais elaborações eram vistas em uma perspectiva da função social da arquitetura.
Title in English
Architecture, national identity and political projects during Getúlio Vargas's dictatorial government : the São Paulo's practical schools of agriculture.
Keywords in English
Architecture
Fernando Costa
Getúlio Vargas's dictatorial government
National identity
Neocolonial architecture
Schools of agriculture
Abstract in English
Between 1937 and 1945 Brazil was under the dictatorial government of the Estado Novo, whose ideology of progress and national growth appears strongly characterized by the paradigms of nationalism, defense of the national sovereignty, modernization of institutions, industrialization of production processes, and mainly by the belief in the government as a mediator of tensions. In this process, marked by the transformation of the collective imagery in a regulatory instrument of daily life, the construction of a unifying national identity, able to accommodate differences, became a central mechanism of power. Furthermore, we can say that, in the same period, the long process of construction of an architectural autonomous professional field - especially in what concerns its erudite aspect - reached its culmination. This process, which was present in the previous decades, involved many procedures and strategies not only in the educational field, but also regarding the consolidation of a recognized plastic language, the construction of emblematic buildings and the power to elaborate its own history. In such a context, architecture and the state established, especially during these years of dictatorial government, a very particular relationship. The aim of this dissertation is to approach some of these questions by addressing a specific episode: the construction of the Practical Schools of Agriculture, carried through by the governor of São Paulo, Fernando Costa, between 1942 and 1945. Therefore the research was centered in the analysis of the idealization, conception of the architectural project and establishment of these schools, in the effort to identify, through its architecture, interconnected or contrasting political projects. In this scenario, special attention was given to the neocolonial architecture adopted as the central aspect of the conception of these schools - whose architectural projects were conceived by governmental institutions -, and its assumed ideological discourse, where the esthetic and symbolic elements made reference to but also proposed new constructions to the collective imagery, and where these elaborations were understood as part of architectural social responsibility.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-29
 
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