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Master's Dissertation
Document
Author
Full name
João Eduardo Albino Pimentel
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Marcovitch, Jacques (President)
Fleury, Afonso Carlos Correa
Pomeranz, Lenina
Title in Portuguese
Empresas brasileiras na China: estratégia e gestão
Keywords in Portuguese
Empresas multinacionais - Brasil
Estratégia organizacional
Internacionalização de empresas
Relações econômicas - Brasil-China
Abstract in Portuguese
A globalização teve muitas conseqüências na governança do mundo, particularmente, orquestrando um reordenamento econômico em que os países emergentes assumiram uma posição de maior destaque. Soma-se a isso a ascensão de grandes empresas multinacionais com sede nesses países. A China e o Brasil são dois exemplos de países que vem ganhando grande importância no cenário global e cujas empresas também começam a liderar e se destacar em alguns setores. No entanto, são poucas as empresas brasileiras que tem atividades relevantes na China, além de exportações a partir do Brasil. Essa dissertação identifica as razões da situação presente, entre elas a falta de conhecimento e as intensas dificuldades enfrentadas por empresas ocidentais, particularmente brasileiras, na China. Além disso, o governo brasileiro também não exerce algumas funções que lhe seriam próprias no processo. Foi inicialmente realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre motivações e vantagens para empresas e países dos investimentos diretos no exterior, competitividade internacional, relações econômicas entre Brasil e China, relações governo-empresas no processo de internacionalização e diferenças culturais e institucionais entre os dois países. Com isso, foi possível estabelecer alguns pressupostos teóricos, cuja avaliação foi realizada por meio dos estudos dos casos de cinco empresas brasileiras com atividades na China. Trata-se de cinco empresas que pertencem a setores diversificados e níveis distintos de comprometimento de capital naquele país. Concluiu-se que as motivações de entrada no país, as dificuldades enfrentadas no processo de entrada e nas operações e a visão sobre o papel exercido pelo governo são similares. A principal motivação de entrada foi a garantia de uma parcela de um mercado de grande potencial e que mais cresce no mundo. Outra motivação foi o enfrentamento no ambiente competitivo do setor a que as empresas pertencem, em que os principais concorrentes atuam na China. As dificuldades mais importantes foram de ordem cultural e institucional. Já o papel do governo foi julgado, majoritariamente, incipiente. Mais divergências foram encontradas nos mecanismos utilizados para gerenciar as dificuldades enfrentadas. Uma conclusão é que muitas delas seriam passíveis de minimização por meio da análise dos casos de empresas ocidentais já estabelecidas na China, e por meio de algumas atitudes que poderiam ser adotadas pelo governo brasileiro e pelas próprias empresas.
Title in English
Brazilian companies in China: strategy and management
Keywords in English
Economic relations Brazil-China
International business
Multinational companies from Brazil
Abstract in English
Globalization has had many consequences for the world economy governance, particularly orchestrating an economic reordering in which emerging countries have taken a much more prominent role. This role can be seen also by the rise of large multinational companies based in those countries. China and Brazil are two important examples of countries that have gained great importance in the global scene and whose companies are also beginning to lead and excel in some sectors. However, only a few Brazilian companies have activities in China, beyond exports from Brazil. This dissertation aimed to discover which are the reasons for this pattern, taking as preliminary assumptions that it is due to a lack of knowledge and to the intense difficulties faced by Western companies, particularly Brazilian ones, in China. Moreover, another possible reason should be a lack of attitude of the Brazilian government in exerting its required role in the process. We reviewed the literature on motivations and outcomes of foreign direct investment for companies and countries, international competitiveness, economic relations between Brazil and China, government-business relations in the process of internationalization and cultural as well as institutional differences between the two countries. Therefore, it was possible to establish a theoretical framework, whose evaluation was performed by means of case studies of five Brazilian companies with activities in China. It was concluded that, despite the different sectors of these companies and the different levels of invested capital in China, the motivations for entering the country, the difficulties in the process of entry and operations and the vision of the role played by the government are similar. The main motivation for entering China was to guarantee a share of the fastest growing market in the world, and also to face an environment in which all companies competitors are doing business in China. The main difficulties faced were cultural and institutional ones, and the government-business relations have been considered distant. More differences were found in the mechanisms used by the companies to manage the difficulties faced. One conclusion is that many of those difficulties should be subject to minimization by analyzing the cases of Western companies already established in China, and through some actions that could be adopted by the Brazilian government and companies themselves.
 
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Publishing Date
2009-12-21
 
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