• JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
 
  Bookmark and Share
 
 
Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2015.tde-30092015-115437
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
Piracicaba, 2015
Directeur
Jury
Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino (Président)
Moura, Luiz Fernando de
Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú
Feigl, Brigitte Josefine
Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias
Titre en anglais
The role of biochar on greenhouse gas offsets, improvement of soil attributes and nutrient use efficiency in tropical soils
Mots-clés en anglais
15N-tracer method
Carbon dioxide
Carbon sequestration
Climate change
Methane
Nitrous oxide
Pyrogenic carbon
Soil management
Resumé en anglais
The solid product of pyrolysis, called "biochar" (BC) in the context of improving soil properties as part of agronomic or environmental management, also got into focus as a climate mitigation strategy. The researcher investigated the effects of BC on soil attributes, nitrogen (N) use and GHG emissions. In Chapter 1 the origin of BC was commented. In Chapter 2, BC from sugarcane straw was characterized, and its priming on native SC was evaluated with the treatments: (T1) Soil; (T2) BC; (T3) Soil + BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T4) Soil + BC 20 Mg ha-1; and (T5) Soil + BC 50 Mg ha-1. In Chapter 3, it was evaluated the combination of BC, filter cake (F) and vinasse (V), in relation to soil attributes and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The treatments were: (T1) Soil + FC + V; (T2) Soil + FC + V + BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T3) Soil + FC + V + BC 20 Mg ha-1; and (T4) Soil + FC + V + BC 50 Mg ha-1. In Chapter 4, the nitrogen (N) use efficiency was investigated in a pot trial under wheat using NH4[15N]O3 and rates of BC, with the treatments: (T1) Soil, with N, no BC; (T2) Soil, with N, BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T3) Soil, with N, BC 20 Mg ha-1; and (T4) Soil, with N, BC 50 Mg ha-1. BC had C and N contents higher compared to the feedstock. Total K, Mg and P also increased. The lowest CO2 fluxes were for BC, and CO2 from soil and soil + BC did not differ. The highest CO2 - C4 was in the first day, and there were no differences in the CO2 - C3. The BC presents characteristics to improve soil attributes. BC stability is an opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions. In Chapter 3, soil pH, P and base contents increased and Al3+ decreased with BC to sandy soil. Impacts of BC on the CEC were higher in sandy soil. Mineral N decreased with BC. Cumulative CO2 in T1 were higher in sandy and clayey soils than the control. T2 and T3 in sandy soil increased CO2 emissions, but T4 did not differ from T1. BC reduced N2O emissions from sandy and clayey soils relative to T1. BC with FC and V affected pH, CEC, P and base contents. However, those effects were higher in sandy soil. The BC supressed N2O from V and FC. In Chapter 4, BC decreased N2O from N fertilization compared to only N fertilizer. T4 had higher tillering and grain yield. Also, T2 to T4 had higher 100-grain weight and shoot. T3 and T4 had the highest N in grains. The application of BC to soil improves N availability and use efficiency, enhances grain yields and reduces N2O from N fertilization. This study opened encouraging perspectives to the evaluation of sugarcane straw BC to improve soil quality and mitigate GHG emissions.
Titre en portugais
O papel do biochar nas emissões de gases do efeito estufa, melhoria de atributos do solo e eficiência de uso de nutrientes em solos tropicais
Mots-clés en portugais
Carbono pirogênico
Eficiência de uso do nitrogênio
Manejo do solo
Método do traçador 15N
Mudanças climáticas
Resumé en portugais
O produto sólido da pirólise, denominado "biochar" (BC) no contexto da melhoria nos atributos do solo como parte do manejo agrícola e ambiental, também tem se destacado na mitigação das mudanças climáticas. O pesquisador investigou os efeitos do BC nos atributos do solo, uso do nitrogênio (N) e emissões de GEE. No Cap. 1 comentou-se a origem do BC. No Cap. 2, caracterizou-se o BC de palha de cana-de-açúcar e avaliou-se o potencial de decomposição do C do solo, com os tratamentos: (T1) Solo; (T2) BC; (T3) Solo + BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T4) Solo + BC 20 Mg ha-1 (T4); e (T5) Solo + BC 50 Mg ha-1. No Cap. 3, avaliou-se a combinação BC, torta de filtro (TF) e vinhaça (V) em atributos do solo e fluxos de dióxido de carbono (CO2), metano (CH4) e óxido nitroso (N2O) nos tratamentos: (T1) Solo + TF + V; (T2) Solo + TF + V + BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T3) Solo + TF + V + BC 20 Mg ha-1; e (T4) Solo + TF + V + BC 50 Mg ha-1. No Cap. 4 investigou-se a eficiência de uso do N num experimento em vasos com trigo usando NH4 [15N]O3 e doses de BC, com os tratamentos: (T1) Solo, com N, sem BC; (T2) Solo, com N, BC 10 Mg ha-1; (T3) Solo, com N, BC 20 Mg ha-1; e (T4) Solo, com N, BC 50 Mg ha-1. Os teores de C e N do BC foram maiores comparado à biomassa. K, Mg e P totais também aumentaram. Os menores fluxos de CO2 foram do BC. O CO2 do solo e solo + BC não diferiram. Observou-se maior CO2 - C4 no primeiro dia de incubação, porém sem diferenças no CO2 - C3. O BC apresenta características para melhorar atributos do solo e reduzir as emissões de CO2. No Cap. 3, pH, P e bases aumentaram e o Al3+ diminuíu com o BC. Os impactos do BC na CTC foram maiores em solo arenoso. O N mineral diminuíu com o BC. O CO2 acumulado no T1 foi maior nos solos arenoso e argiloso comparado ao controle. O T2 e T3 aumentaram o CO2 acumulado do arenoso relativo ao T1, enquanto T4 e T1 não diferiram. O BC reduziu as emissões de N2O pelos solos arenoso e argiloso comparado ao T1. O BC combinado à TF e V afetaram pH, CTC, P e bases do solo arenoso. O BC suprimiu o N2O de solos com V e TF. No Cap. 4, o BC diminuíu as emissões de N2O comparado ao fertilizante N apenas. T4 teve rendimento de grãos superior ao T1. T2 a T4 apresentaram maior peso de 100 grãos e biomassa aérea. T3 e T4 tiveram maior N em grãos. O BC melhora o uso do N, a produção de grãos e reduz o N2O de fertilizante N, abrindo perspectivas para a avaliação do BC de palha de cana-de-açúcar na melhoria da qualidade do solo e mitigar das emissões de GEE.
 
AVERTISSEMENT - Regarde ce document est soumise à votre acceptation des conditions d'utilisation suivantes:
Ce document est uniquement à des fins privées pour la recherche et l'enseignement. Reproduction à des fins commerciales est interdite. Cette droits couvrent l'ensemble des données sur ce document ainsi que son contenu. Toute utilisation ou de copie de ce document, en totalité ou en partie, doit inclure le nom de l'auteur.
Date de Publication
2015-10-06
 
AVERTISSEMENT: Apprenez ce que sont des œvres dérivées cliquant ici.
Tous droits de la thèse/dissertation appartiennent aux auteurs
Centro de Informática de São Carlos
Bibliothèque Numérique de Thèses et Mémoires de l'USP. Copyright © 2001-2019. Tous droits réservés.