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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2016.tde-05012016-111344
Document
Author
Full name
Luciana Mecatti Elias
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Lira, Simone Possedente de (President)
Queiroz, Sonia Claudia do Nascimento de
Azevedo, João Lucio de
Rodrigues, Andre
Title in Portuguese
Bioprospecção de fungos endofíticos isolados de guaranazeiros da Amazônia
Keywords in Portuguese
Colletotrichum
Antracnose
Compostos bioativos
Produtos naturais
Abstract in Portuguese
Fungos do gênero Colletotrichum são considerados um dos principais fitopatógenos do mundo, comprometendo diversas culturas e causando danos econômicos e sociais para diversos países, inclusive o Brasil. Apesar de medidas de controle já serem empregadas, estas nem sempre são eficazes, motivo pelo qual se faz necessária a busca por novas opções de controle que possam atuar no manejo integrado. Dentre estas, encontram-se os metabólitos secundários produzidos por fungos endofíticos, os quais estão envolvidos na produção de compostos de interesse biotecnológico, com aplicações em diversas áreas, inclusive a agronômica. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho de doutorado teve por objetivo explorar o potencial biológico e químico de metabólitos secundários produzidos por fungos endofíticos isolados de guaranazeiros da Amazônia, avaliando sua atividade antifúngica "in vitro" a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolado da cultura do guaranazeiro, a C. acutatum e C. gloeosporioides, isolados da cultura do pimentão. Para tanto, 16 linhagens de fungos endofíticos foram avaliadas em ensaio biológico por cultivo pareado e pelo método de difusão em disco contra Colletotrichum spp. Observou-se que quatro linhagens se mostraram mais promissoras, as quais foram selecionadas para o estudo de bioprospecção. A partir do extrato bruto do endófito Aspergillus flavus (272) foi isolado o composto ativo asperfuran, que apresentou atividade inibitória aos três fitopatógenos, com CI50 < 100 μg disco-1, semelhante ao fungicida comercial difenoconazol. A partir do extrato bruto de Xylaria sp. (214) foi isolado o composto ativo citocalasina D, que apresentou atividade inibitória a C. gloeosporioides isolado do guaranazeiro, com CI50 > 500 μg disco-1. A partir do extrato bruto de Xylaria sp. (249) foi isolado o composto ativo ácido pilifórmico, que apresentou atividade inibitória a C. gloeosporioides isolado do guaranazeiro, com CI50 de 500 μg disco-1 e à C. acutatum isolado o pimentão, com CI50 de 300 μg disco-1. E, a partir do extrato bruto de Talaromyces aculeatus (507) foram isolados três compostos, da classe dos ésteres ftalicos, sendo um ativo. A fração antecessora destes três compostos apresentou atividade inibitória a C. gloeosporioides isolado do guaranazeiro, com CI50 > 500 μg disco-1. A partir do extrato bruto de T. aculeatus também foi isolado um composto ativo parcialmente identificado e um composto ativo semi-purificado. A fração antecessora destes dois compostos apresentou atividade inibitória aos dois C. gloeosporioides, com CI50 > 300 μg disco-1 e a C. acutatum, com CI50 em torno de 150 μg disco-1. A atividade antifúngica destes compostos a fungos do gênero Colletotrichum está sendo relatada pela primeira vez neste estudo.
Title in English
Bioprospecting of endophytic fungi isolated from the Amazonian guarana
Keywords in English
Colletotrichum
Anthracnose
Bioactive compounds
Natural products
Abstract in English
Colletotrichum fungi are considered one of the main pathogens in the world, affecting different cultures and causing social and economic damage to several countries, including Brazil. Despite control measures already being employed, these are not always effective, which is why the search for new control options that can act in the integrated management is necessary. Among these, the secondary metabolites produced by endophytes are involved in the production of compounds of biotechnological interest, with applications in several areas, including the agronomic. In this context, this study aimed to explore the biological and chemical potential of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi isolated from the Amazonian guarana, evaluating their antifungal activity "in vitro" to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from the culture of guarana and C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, isolated from the red pepper crop. For this purpose, 16 strains of endophytic fungi were evaluated in biological assay of dual culture and disk diffusion method against Colletotrichum spp. Four strains of these strains presented promising results which were selected for bioprospecting. From the crude extract of the endophyte Aspergillus flavus (272) was isolated the active compound asperfuran, which showed inhibitory activity to three pathogens, with IC50 <100 μg disk-1, similar to the commercial fungicide difenoconazole. From the crude extract of Xylaria sp. (214) was isolated the active compound cytochalasin D, which showed inhibitory activity against C. gloeosporioides isolated from guarana (IC50> 500 μg disk-1). From the crude extract of Xylaria sp. (249) was isolated the active compound piliformic acid, which showed inhibitory activity against C. gloeosporioides isolated from guarana (IC50 of 500 μg disk-1) and C. acutatum isolated from red pepper (IC50 of 300 μg disk-1). And from the crude extract of Talaromyces aculeatus (507) were isolated three compounds, of phthalate esters class, one of them with activity. The predecessor fraction of these three compounds showed inhibitory activity against C. gloeosporioides isolated from guarana (IC50> 500 μg disk-1). From the crude extract of T. aculeatus it was also isolated a partially identified active compound and a semi-purified active compound. The predecessor fraction of these two compounds showed inhibitory activity to both C. gloeosporioides (IC50> 300 μg disk-1) and to C. acutatum (IC50 around 150 μg disk-1). The antifungal activity of the compounds isolated in this study is being reported for the first time against fungus of the genus Colletotrichum.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-01-19
 
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