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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2015.tde-28042015-170342
Document
Author
Full name
Rafael Campagnol
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Mello, Simone da Costa (President)
Boas, Roberto Lyra Villas
Cardoso, Antônio Ismael Inácio
Melo, Paulo Cesar Tavares de
Minami, Keigo
Title in Portuguese
Nitrogênio e tipos de substratos no monitoramento nutricional, na produtividade e na qualidade do tomateiro cultivado em ambiente protegido climatizado
Keywords in Portuguese
Solanum lycopersicum
Clorofilômetros
Cultivo protegido
Fertirrigação
Medidores de íons específicos
Solução nutritiva
Tomate grape
Abstract in Portuguese
A produção de hortaliças em substratos é uma técnica de cultivo que pode aumentar a produtividade, economizar recursos e facilitar o manejo nutricional das plantas. Contudo, para que isso seja possível, deve-se conhecer os fatores que afetam o crescimento das plantas cultivadas nesse sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de nitrogênio da solução nutritiva (SN) (60, 80 100, 120 e 140% da dose padrão) em dois tipos de substratos (S1: fibra de coco e S2: a base de casca de pinus) no cultivo de minitomate Sweet Grape. Foram avaliadas ao longo do ciclo de cultivo o pH, a condutividade elétrica (CE) e o teor de nitrato (NO3-drenado) e potássio (K+drenado) na solução drenada dos vasos, o índice SPAD e o teor de nitrato (NO3- pecíolo) e potássio (K+ pecíolo) da seiva do pecíolo das folhas e o teor de nitrogênio da massa seca das folhas (Nfolha). Foram determinados o número de cacho por planta (NCPP) e o comprimento médio das hastes (CMH). Os frutos colhidos foram classificados, contados e pesados para a obtenção da massa média dos frutos grandes (MMFG), médios (MMFM) e pequenos (MMFP), massa total de frutos por planta (MTFPP), massa total de frutos grandes (MTFG), médios (MTFM), pequenos (MTFP) e rachados (MTFRA), número total de frutos por planta (NTFPP), número total de frutos grandes (NTFG), médios (NTFM), pequenos (NTFP) e rachados (NTFRA). Amostras de frutos foram coletadas em três períodos e avaliadas quanto ao teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS), acidez titulável (AT) e concentração de ácido ascórbico (AA). Os valores de pHdrenado diminuíram com o aumento das doses de N da solução nutritiva. Os efeitos do N no pHdrenado se intensificaram ao longo do ciclo de cultivo em razão do acúmulo de sais no meio radicular, principalmente no S1. A CEdrenada aumentou com dose de N e foi maior no S2. O aumento da dose de N elevou os teores de NO3-drenado em ambos os substratos. O K+drenado foi superior na dose de 140% de N no S1. Os valores de índice SPAD e Nfolha aumentaram com a elevação das doses de N da solução nutritiva e reduziram ao longo do ciclo de cultivo. O NO3-pecíolo elevou com o aumento da dose de N da SN. A MMFG foi superior com a adição de 140% de N em relação à dose de 60%. O aumento da dose de N elevou o NTFG, NTFM, NTFP, NTRA e NTFPP. O maior NTFG foi obtido no S2 enquanto que o maior NTFPP, NTFP e NTFRA ocorreu no S1. A MTFG, MTFM, MTFP, MTFRA e MTFPP aumentaram com o aumento da dose de N. Os valores mais elevados de MTFG e MTFP foram obtidos na dose de 140% de N, 331,05 e 1.249,82 g planta-1, respectivamente. A maior MTFM foi obtida na dose de 120% de N, não diferindo, porém, das doses de 100 e 140% de N. O TSS, a AT e o AA dos frutos não foram influenciados pelas doses de N e tipos de substrato.
Title in English
Nitrogen and substrate in nutritional management, yield and quality of tomato growth in climated greenhouse
Keywords in English
Chlorophyll meter
Fertigation
Grape tomat
Greenhouse
Nitrogen
Nutrient solution
Solanum lycopersicum
Specific ions meters
Substrate
Abstract in English
Vegetables production in soilless media is a technique that can increase yield, saving resources and facilitate the nutritional management of plants. However, for that to be possible, its necessary to know how the factors affect the plants growth in this system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen rates of nutrient solution (NS) (60, 80 100, 120 and 140% of the standard) in two type of soilless media (S1: coconut fiber and S2: pine bark as base) for the mini tomato Sweet Grape growth. Were evaluated during the growing season pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and the nitrate content (NO3-drained) and potassium (K+ drained) in the solution drained from the vessels, SPAD index and the nitrate (NO3-pecíolo) and potassium (K+ petiole) content on petiole sap from the leaves and the nitrogen content in leaf dry mater (Nleaf). Were determined the number of fruit per plant (NFPP) and the average length of stems (ALS). The harvested fruits were sorted, counted and weighed to obtain the average mass of large fruits (AMLF), medium fruits (AMMF) and small fruits (AMSF), total weight of fruits per plant (TWFPP), total weight of large fruits (TWLF) medium fruits (TWMF), small fruits (TWSF) and cracked fruits (TWCF), total number of fruits per plant (TNFPP), total number of large fruits (TNLF), medium fruits (TNMF), small frutis (TNSF) and cracked fruits (TNCF). Fruit samples were collected in three periods and evaluated for soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and concentration of ascorbic acid (AA). The pHdrained values decreased with increasing N levels in nutrient solution. The effects of N on pHdrained intensified throughout the growing season due to the accumulation of salts in the root medium, especially in S1. The CEdrained increased with N rate and was higher in S2. The increase in N rate increased the levels of NO3-drained on both substrates. The K+ drained was higher at 140% N dose in S1. SPAD index and Nleaf values increased with higher N rates in nutrient solution and reduced throughout the growing season. The NO3 - petiole increased with increasing dose of N in NS. The MMFG was higher with the addition of 140% N in relation to the dose of 60%. The increase in N rate increased the TNLF, TNMF, TNSF, TNCF and TNFPP. The biggest TNLF was obtained in S2 while the largest TNFPP, TNSF and TNCF occurred in S1. The TWLF, TWMF, TWSF, TWCF and TWFPP increased with increasing N levels in NS. The highest values of TWLF and TWSF were obtained at 140% N level, 331.05 and 1249.82 g plant-1, respectively. The biggest TWMF was obtained at 120% N level in NS, however, not differing of the 100 and 140% N levels. The SS, TA and AA fruits were not influenced by N and substrate types.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-05-11
 
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