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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2003.tde-17022003-155824
Document
Author
Full name
Silvio André Meirelles Alves
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2002
Supervisor
Committee
Bergamin Filho, Armando (President)
Amorim, Lilian
Pomella, Alan William Vilela
Title in Portuguese
Epidemiologia da vassoura-de-bruxa (Crinipellis perniciosa (STAHEL) Singer) em cacaueiros enxertados em Uruçuca, BA.
Keywords in Portuguese
cacau
clonagem
epidemiologia
relação hospedeiro-patógeno
resistência genética
vassoura-de-bruxa
Abstract in Portuguese
A vassoura-de-bruxa é a doença mais importante da cultura do cacaueiro, nos países onde ela ocorre. Em 1989 foi constatada pela primeira vez a presença do patógeno causador dessa doença na principal região produtora do Brasil. A falta de medidas de controle eficientes resultou, nos últimos anos, em menor produção, mudanças no uso da terra, venda de propriedades, diminuição do nível de emprego e danos ao meio ambiente. Em vista do pouco conhecimento sobre aspectos epidemiológicos da doença nas condições do sudeste da Bahia, elaborou-se o presente trabalho com os seguintes objetivos: estudar o gradiente de infecção da vassoura-de-bruxa em ramos e frutos em cacaueiros enxertados; comparar o efeito de genótipos e três tratamentos (poda fitossanitária semestral, poda fitossanitária mensal e poda fitossanitária aliada a aplicação de fungicida mensais) no controle da doença; estudar o progresso da vassoura-de-bruxa no tempo, quantificado em ramos e frutos doentes. O experimento foi conduzido em Uruçuca, BA, em área contendo 16 genótipos diferentes, adjacente a uma área com cacaueiros abandonados com alta incidência da doença. A área experimental foi dividida em três partes, as quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: poda fitossanitária semestral, poda fitossanitária mensal e poda fitossanitária aliada a aplicação de fungicida mensal. Pelo menos uma vez por mês foram contados os ramos e frutos com vassoura. Os resultados mostraram a ausência de evidência clara da existência de gradiente de doença. Os níveis de resistência genética à vassoura-de-bruxa de ramos e frutos não foram correlacionados entre si. Houve bom ajuste do progresso da doença ao modelo monomolecular. As menores taxas de crescimento foram obtidas no tratamento com poda e aplicação de fungicida mensal. O tratamento que combinou poda e pulverização com fungicida apresentou diferença significativa na redução do percentual de frutos com vassoura. Os genótipos NO-34, NO-17 e NO-02 foram os que apresentaram menores percentagens de frutos com vassoura, sendo significativamente diferentes dos genótipos NO-24 e NO-13.
Title in English
Epidemiology of witches' broom (Crinipellis perniciosa (STAHEL) Singer) on grafted cocoa in Uruçuca, BA.
Keywords in English
cloning
cocoa
epidemiology
genetic resistance
host-pathogen relationship
witches' broom
Abstract in English
Witches' broom is the most important disease of cocoa, in the countries where it occurs. In 1989, it was verified for the first time the presence of the pathogen in the main producing area of Brazil. The lack of efficient control measures resulted, in the last years, in losses in the production, changes in the use of the soil, sale of properties, decrease of the employment level and damages to the environment. In view of the little knowledge on epidemic aspects of the disease in the conditions of the southeast of Bahia, the present work was elaborated with the following objectives: to study the gradient of the witches' broom infection in flushes and pods in grafted cocoa; to compare the effect of genotypes and three treatments (half-yearly phytosanitation, monthly phytosanitation and monthly phytosanitation allied to fungicide application) in the control of the disease; to study the witches' broom temporal progress, quantified in flushes and pods. Trials were carried out in Uruçuca, BA, in area contends 16 different genotypes, adjacent an area with abandoned cocoa with high incidence of the disease. The experimental area was divided in three parts, which received the following treatments: half-yearly phytosanitation, monthly phytosanitation and monthly phytosanitation allied to fungicide application. At least once a month, flushes and pods with broom were counted. Results showed the absence of clear evidence of the existence of disease gradient. The levels of genetic resistance to the witches' broom of flushes and pods were not correlated to each other. There was good adjustment of progress of the disease to the monomolecular model. The smallest growth rates were obtained in the treatment with monthly phytosanitation and fungicide application. The treatment that allied phytosanitation and fungicide application presented significant difference in the reduction of the percentage of witches' broom infected pods. The genotypes NO-34, NO-17 and NO-02 presented smaller percentages of diseased pods, being significantly different from the genotypes NO-24 and NO-13.
 
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Publishing Date
2003-02-28
 
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