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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.100.2016.tde-17102016-110242
Document
Author
Full name
Mikael Peric de Freitas
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes (President)
Campos, Paulo Roberto de Araujo
Neves, Eduardo Goes
Vicente, Renato
Title in Portuguese
Origem e evolução da desigualdade material hereditária: uma abordagem dos Sistemas Adaptativos Complexos
Keywords in Portuguese
Auto-organização
Complexidade
Desigualdade
Emergência
Evolução humana
Abstract in Portuguese
A desigualdade material hereditária teria surgido no registro arqueológico pela primeira vez por volta de 6.500 A.C. na região da Mesopotâmia, tendo posteriormente emergido de maneira independente em diferentes localidades e contextos, dentro de um intervalo de tempo relativamente curto. Muitas teorias foram propostas para explicar os fenômenos, porém sua compreensão permanece em aberto. Buscou-se, aqui, abordar a questão sob a perspectiva dos Sistemas Adaptativos Complexos, construindo um Modelo Baseado em Agentes que teve como base teórica a literatura que trata da questão, focada nos últimos vinte anos do debate, aprofundada em dois estudos de caso: a Mesopotâmia e a Costa Noroeste da América do Norte. Dos nove parâmetros testados oito apresentaram relação direta com a assimetria material dos indivíduos podendo colaborar com a emergência da desigualdade material hereditária, de forma que fomos levados a considerar a igualdade material e a cooperação presente entre os caçadores e coletores como propriedades decorrentes de uma estrutura social de criticalidade auto-organizada
Title in English
Origins and evolution of hereditary material inequality: a Complex Adaptive Systems approach
Keywords in English
Complexity
Emergence
Human evolution
Inequality
Self-organization
Abstract in English
The hereditary material inequality would have emerged for the first time in the archaeological record around 6.500 BC in Mesopotamia, emerging after it repeatedly and independently in different localities and contexts, in a small time period. Many theories have been proposed but the complete understanding of the issue remains open to debate. Thus, we have proposed here an approach of the phenomenon under the Complex Adaptive Systems perspective, through which an agent-based model have been built. Constitutes the background of the model the working papers and text books written in the last two decades, which were later checked agains two case studies: Mesopotamia and Northwest Coast, in North America. Among the nine parameters tested in the model eight presented direct relation to the material asymmetry of individuals, potentially participating of the precesses involved in the emergence of material inequality. This results leads us to consider the possibility of the egalitarian and cooperative social structures of huntergatherers to be one of self-organized criticality
 
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Publishing Date
2016-10-18
 
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